Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that is defined by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and fever in the presence of pulmonary eosinophilia. It often presents acutely in previously healthy individuals and can be difficult to distinguish from infectious pneumonia. Although the exact etiology of idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia remains unknown, an acute hypersensitivity reaction to an inhaled antigen is suggested, which is further supported by recent public health risks of vaping (electronic cigarette) use and the development of lung disease. In this case, a patient with a year-long history of vaping in conjunction with tetrahydrocannabinol cartridge use who was diagnosed with idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia with associated bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy is described.
Orphan drug development is crucial for children, who are disproportionately affected by rare diseases. Data are lacking on the number, nature, and benefit of recently approved pediatric orphan indications.METHODS:
We classified the 402 orphan indications the US Food and Drug Administration approved between 2010 and 2018 as "pediatric" if they were approved for children only or targeted pediatric diseases. We determined the number of unique diseases targeted by pediatric orphan indications and calculated the proportion that were for (1) novel drugs, (2) non-novel drugs approved to treat ≥1 common disease, and (3) non-novel drugs approved only to treat rare diseases. Among pediatric orphan indications eligible for US Food and Drug Administration breakthrough designation (granted to drugs potentially representing major therapeutic advances), we calculated the proportion receiving this designation.RESULTS:
Of the 402 orphan indications, 136 (33.8%) were pediatric. These 136 indications targeted 87 unique diseases; 21 diseases were targeted by ≥1 indication. Of the 136 pediatric orphan indications, 60 (44.1%) were for novel drugs, 45 (33.1%) were for non-novel drugs approved to treat ≥1 common disease, and 31 (22.8%) were for non-novel drugs approved only to treat rare diseases. Among 97 indications eligible for breakthrough designation, 20 (20.6%) received this designation.CONCLUSIONS:
Recent orphan drug development has increased the availability of treatments for pediatric rare diseases. Most pediatric orphan indications expanded use of existing drugs, and many targeted the same disease. Some indications may represent breakthroughs, but substantial unmet need for treatments remains for most pediatric rare diseases.
Antibiotic therapy is often prescribed for suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children despite a lack of knowledge of causative pathogen. Our objective in this study was to investigate the association between antibiotic prescription and treatment failure in children with suspected CAP who are discharged from the hospital emergency department (ED).METHODS:
We performed a prospective cohort study of children (ages 3 months–18 years) who were discharged from the ED with suspected CAP. The primary exposure was antibiotic receipt or prescription. The primary outcome was treatment failure (ie, hospitalization after being discharged from the ED, return visit with antibiotic initiation or change, or antibiotic change within 7–15 days from the ED visit). The secondary outcomes included parent-reported quality-of-life measures. Propensity score matching was used to limit potential bias attributable to treatment selection between children who did and did not receive an antibiotic prescription.RESULTS:
Of 337 eligible children, 294 were matched on the basis of propensity score. There was no statistical difference in treatment failure between children who received antibiotics and those who did not (odds ratio 1.0; 95% confidence interval 0.45–2.2). There was no difference in the proportion of children with return visits with hospitalization (3.4% with antibiotics versus 3.4% without), initiation and/or change of antibiotics (4.8% vs 6.1%), or parent-reported quality-of-life measures.CONCLUSIONS:
Among children with suspected CAP, the outcomes were not statistically different between those who did and did not receive an antibiotic prescription.
An adolescent girl with a history of frequent electronic cigarette use of nicotine was hospitalized with severe necrotizing pneumonia. Blood cultures obtained before the administration of empirical broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics had positive results for the growth of Fusobacterium necrophorum. The pathogen is an uncommon but well-known cause of anaerobic pneumonia with unique features that are collectively referred to as Lemierre syndrome or postanginal sepsis. The syndrome begins as a pharyngeal infection. Untreated, the infection progresses to involve the ipsilateral internal jugular vein, resulting in septic thrombophlebitis with direct spread from the neck to the lungs causing multifocal necrotizing pneumonia. The teenager we present in this report had neither a preceding pharyngeal infection nor Doppler ultrasonographic evidence for the presence of deep neck vein thrombi, leading us to explore alternative mechanisms for her pneumonia. We propose the possibility that her behavior of frequent vaping led to sufficient pharyngeal irritation such that F necrophorum colonizing her oropharynx was inhaled directly into her lungs during electronic cigarette use. Preexisting, but not yet recognized, vaping-related lung injury may have also contributed to her risk of developing the infection. The patient was hospitalized for 10 days. At follow-up one month later, she still became short of breath with minimal exertion.
Several antiemetics have been used in children with acute gastroenteritis. However, there is still controversy over their use.OBJECTIVE:
To determine the effectiveness and safety of antiemetics for controlling vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis.DATA SOURCES:
Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Latin America and the Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, and gray literature, until December 2018.STUDY SELECTION:
We selected randomized clinical trials comparing metoclopramide, ondansetron, domperidone, dexamethasone, dimenhydrinate, and granisetron.DATA EXTRACTION:
Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed pairwise and network meta-analysis using the random-effects model.RESULTS:
Twenty-four studies were included (3482 children). Ondansetron revealed the largest effect in comparison to placebo for cessation of vomiting (odds ratio = 0.28 [95% credible interval = 0.16 to 0.46]; quality of evidence: high) and for hospitalization (odds ratio = 2.93 [95% credible interval = 1.69 to 6.18]; quality of evidence: moderate). Ondansetron was the only intervention that reduced the need for intravenous rehydration and the number of vomiting episodes. When considering side effects, dimenhydrinate was the only intervention that was worse than placebo.LIMITATIONS:
Most treatment comparisons had low- or very low–quality evidence, because of risk of biases and imprecise estimates.CONCLUSIONS:
Ondansetron is the only intervention that revealed an effect on the cessation of vomiting, on preventing hospitalizations, and in reducing the need for intravenous rehydration. Ondansetron was also considered a safe intervention.
The ability of the decades-old Boston and Philadelphia criteria to accurately identify infants at low risk for serious bacterial infections has not been recently reevaluated.METHODS:
We assembled a multicenter cohort of infants 29 to 60 days of age who had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood cultures obtained. We report the performance of the modified Boston criteria (peripheral white blood cell count [WBC] ≥20 000 cells per mm3, CSF WBC ≥10 cells per mm3, and urinalysis with >10 WBC per high-power field or positive urine dip result) and modified Philadelphia criteria (peripheral WBC ≥15 000 cells per mm3, CSF WBC ≥8 cells per mm3, positive CSF Gram-stain result, and urinalysis with >10 WBC per high-power field or positive urine dip result) for the identification of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs). We defined IBI as bacterial meningitis (growth of pathogenic bacteria from CSF culture) or bacteremia (growth from blood culture).RESULTS:
We applied the modified Boston criteria to 8344 infants and the modified Philadelphia criteria to 8131 infants. The modified Boston criteria identified 133 of the 212 infants with IBI (sensitivity 62.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 55.9% to 69.3%] and specificity 59.2% [95% CI 58.1% to 60.2%]), and the modified Philadelphia criteria identified 157 of the 219 infants with IBI (sensitivity 71.7% [95% CI 65.2% to 77.6%] and specificity 46.1% [95% CI 45.0% to 47.2%]). The modified Boston and Philadelphia criteria misclassified 17 of 53 (32.1%) and 13 of 56 (23.3%) infants with bacterial meningitis, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:
The modified Boston and Philadelphia criteria misclassified a substantial number of infants 29 to 60 days old with IBI, including those with bacterial meningitis.
Abusive head trauma (AHT) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, especially in young infants. In the past decade, advancements in research have refined medical understanding of the epidemiological, clinical, biomechanical, and pathologic factors comprising the diagnosis, thereby enhancing clinical detection of a challenging diagnostic entity. Failure to recognize AHT and respond appropriately at any step in the process, from medical diagnosis to child protection and legal decision-making, can place children at risk. The American Academy of Pediatrics revises the 2009 policy statement on AHT to incorporate the growing body of knowledge on the topic. Although this statement incorporates some of that growing body of knowledge, it is not a comprehensive exposition of the science. This statement aims to provide pediatric practitioners with general guidance on a complex subject. The Academy recommends that pediatric practitioners remain vigilant for the signs and symptoms of AHT, conduct thorough medical evaluations, consult with pediatric medical subspecialists when necessary, and embrace the challenges and need for strong advocacy on the subject.
It is crucial that all children are provided with high-quality and safe health care. Pediatric inpatient needs are unique in regard to policies, equipment, facilities, and personnel. The intent of this clinical report is to provide recommendations for the resources necessary to provide high-quality and safe pediatric inpatient medical care.
To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with actual recent practice and near-future intention for infant sleep location in a national sample.METHODS:
There were 3260 mothers from 32 US hospitals who responded to a survey at infant age 2 to 6 months regarding care practices, including usual and all infant sleep locations in the previous 2 weeks and intended location for the next 2 weeks. Mothers were categorized as (1) having practiced and/or intending to practice exclusive room-sharing without bed-sharing, (2) having practiced anything other than exclusive room-sharing but intending to practice exclusive room-sharing, (3) intending to have the infant sleep in another room; and (4) intending to practice bed-sharing all night or part of the night. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression examined associations between sleep-location category, demographics, feeding method, doctor advice, and theory of planned behavior domains (attitudes, social norms, and perceived control).RESULTS:
Fewer than half (45.4%) of the mothers practiced and also intended to practice room-sharing without bed-sharing, and 24.2% intended to practice some bed-sharing. Factors associated with intended bed-sharing included African American race and exclusive breastfeeding; however, the highest likelihood of bed-sharing intent was associated with perceived social norms favoring bed-sharing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.14–8.22) and positive attitudes toward bed-sharing (aOR 190.1; 95% CI 62.4–579.0). Women with a doctor’s advice to room-share without bed-sharing intended to practice bed-sharing less (aOR 0.56; 95% CI 0.36–0.85).CONCLUSIONS:
Sleep-location practices do not always align with the recommendation to room-share without bed-sharing, and intention does not always correspond with previous practice. Attitudes, perceived social norms, and doctor advice are factors that are amenable to change and should be considered in educational interventions.
Investigate the relationship between maternal alcohol-use disorder and multiple biological and social child outcomes, including birth outcomes, child protection, justice contact, and academic outcomes for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.METHODS:
Women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1983–2007) and their offspring were in scope. The exposed cohort were mothers with an alcohol-related diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) recorded in an administrative data set and their offspring (non-Indigenous: n = 13 969; Indigenous: n = 9635). The exposed cohort was frequency matched with mothers with no record of an alcohol-related diagnosis and their offspring (comparison cohort; non-Indigenous: n = 40 302; Indigenous: n = 20 533).RESULTS:
Over half of exposed non-Indigenous children (55%) and 84% of exposed Indigenous children experienced ≥1 negative outcome. The likelihood of any negative outcome was significantly higher for the exposed than the comparison cohort (non-Indigenous: odds ratio [OR] = 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.56–2.78]; Indigenous: OR = 2.67 [95% CI = 2.50–2.85]). The odds were greatest for children whose mothers received a diagnosis during pregnancy (non-Indigenous: OR = 4.65 [95% CI = 3.87–5.59]; Indigenous: OR = 5.18 [95% CI = 4.10–6.55]); however, numbers were small.CONCLUSIONS:
The effects of maternal alcohol-use disorder are experienced by the majority of exposed children rather than a vulnerable subgroup of this population. These findings highlight the need for universal prevention strategies to reduce harmful alcohol use and targeted interventions to support at-risk women and children.
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are a diverse group of intestinal diseases involving the infiltration of eosinophils into the bowel wall. EGID can present with a variety of clinical conditions, which are largely dependent on the location of eosinophils in the intestinal wall. We describe the first reported pediatric cases of EGID presenting with symptomatic partial bowel obstruction from intestinal masses due to isolated focal mural involvement. Both patients subsequently responded favorably to therapy with exclusive elemental nutrition in the first case and exclusive elemental nutrition with steroids in the second case. These cases reveal the wide-ranging clinical manifestations of EGID, expand on the differential diagnosis of focal intestinal masses, and provide guidance on the evaluation of ambiguous cases.