There are multiple conditions that can make children prone to having a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). Efforts have been made by multiple organizations to screen children for cardiac conditions, but the emphasis has been on screening before athletic competition. This article is an update of the previous American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement of 2012 that addresses prevention of SCA and SCD. This update includes a comprehensive review of conditions that should prompt more attention and cardiology evaluation. The role of the primary care provider is of paramount importance in the evaluation of children, particularly as they enter middle school or junior high. There is discussion about whether screening should find any cardiac condition or just those that are associated with SCA and SCD. This update reviews the 4 main screening questions that are recommended, not just for athletes, but for all children. There is also discussion about how to handle post-SCA and SCD situations as well as discussion about genetic testing. It is the goal of this policy statement update to provide the primary care provider more assistance in how to screen for life-threatening conditions, regardless of athletic status.
Of the nearly 3.8 million infants born in the United States in 2018, 8.3% had low birth weight (ie, weight <2500 g) and 10% were born preterm (ie, gestational age of <37 weeks). Ten to fifteen percent of infants (approximately 500 000 annually), including low birth weight and preterm infants and others with congenital anomalies, perinatally acquired infections, and other diseases, require admission to a NICU. Every year, approximately 3600 infants in the United States die of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), unknown and undetermined causes, and accidental suffocation and strangulation in an unsafe sleep environment. Preterm and low birth weight infants are 2 to 3 times more likely than healthy term infants to die suddenly and unexpectedly. Thus, it is important that health care professionals prepare families to maintain their infant in a safe home sleep environment as per recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Medical needs of the NICU infant often require practices such as nonsupine positioning, which should be transitioned as soon as medically possible and well before hospital discharge to sleep practices that are safe and appropriate for the home environment. This clinical report outlines the establishment of appropriate NICU protocols for the timely transition of these infants to a safe home sleep environment. The rationale for these recommendations is discussed in the accompanying technical report "Transition to a Safe Home Sleep Environment for the NICU Patient," included in this issue of Pediatrics.
Of the nearly 3.8 million infants born in the United States in 2018, 8.3% had low birth weight (<2500 g [5.5 lb]) and 10% were born preterm (gestational age of <37 completed weeks). Many of these infants and others with congenital anomalies, perinatally acquired infections, and other disease require admission to a NICU. In the past decade, admission rates to NICUs have been increasing; it is estimated that between 10% and 15% of infants will spend time in a NICU, representing approximately 500 000 neonates annually. Approximately 3600 infants die annually in the United States from sleep-related deaths, including sudden infant death syndrome International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (R95), ill-defined deaths (R99), and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed (W75). Preterm and low birth weight infants are particularly vulnerable, with an incidence of death 2 to 3 times greater than healthy term infants. Thus, it is important for health care professionals to prepare families to maintain their infant in a safe sleep environment, as per the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics. However, infants in the NICU setting commonly require care that is inconsistent with infant sleep safety recommendations. The conflicting needs of the NICU infant with the necessity to provide a safe sleep environment before hospital discharge can create confusion for providers and distress for families. This technical report is intended to assist in the establishment of appropriate NICU protocols to achieve a consistent approach to transitioning NICU infants to a safe sleep environment as soon as medically possible, well before hospital discharge.
Integrating Web Services/Applications to Improve Pediatric Functionalities in Electronic Health Records
The past decade has seen a substantial increase in the use of electronic health records (EHRs) by health care providers caring for children. However, gaps in pediatric-specific functionalities continue to exist in some EHR systems, including population-specific growth curves, immunization clinical decision support, weight-based medication dosing with rounding, calculation of pediatric hypertension percentiles, age-specific developmental assessment, newborn bilirubin nomograms, anticipatory guidance reminders, and other functionalities described elsewhere. Implementing pediatric functionalities into EHRs is critical to the provision of safe pediatric care. As an alternative to direct implementation in EHRs, EHR vendor agnostic Web applications, Web services, and application programming interfaces offer an opportunity to provide pediatric functionalities and eliminate the need for each vendor to develop these functionalities. Successful implementation of Web services and related technologies requires responsible attention from both EHR vendors and developers of Web services, Web applications, and application programming interfaces to the use of data terminology standards, adherence to privacy and security requirements, rigorous testing, change management processes, and robust system support and maintenance. Education of health care providers about opportunities to improve pediatric functionalities in EHRs by using these services can facilitate discussions in EHR user groups in which vendors can be lobbied to implement them. This policy statement emphasizes the need to address pediatric-specific functionalities in EHRs by providing insight and recommendations into the development, maintenance, integration, and support of these novel solutions.
Electronic health record (EHR) systems do not uniformly implement pediatric-supportive functionalities. One method of adding these capabilities across EHR platforms is to integrate Web services and Web applications that may perform decision support and store data in the cloud when the EHR platform is able to integrate Web services. Specific examples of these services are described, such as immunization clinical decision support services, consumer health resources, and bilirubin nomograms. Health care providers, EHR vendors, and developers share responsibilities in the appropriate development, integration, and use of Web services and Web applications as they relate to best practices in the areas of data security and confidentiality, technical availability, audit trails, terminology and messaging standards, compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, testing, usability, and other considerations. It is desirable for health care providers to have knowledge of Web services and Web applications that can improve pediatric capabilities in their own EHRs because this will naturally inform discussions concerning EHR features and facilitate implementation and subsequent use of these capabilities by clinicians caring for children.
Laboratory testing is performed frequently in the NICU. Unnecessary tests can result in increased costs, blood loss, and pain, which can increase the risk of long-term growth and neurodevelopmental impairment. Our aim was to decrease routine screening laboratory testing in all infants admitted to our NICU by 20% over a 24-month period.METHODS
We designed and implemented a multifaceted quality improvement project using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Model for Improvement. Baseline data were reviewed and analyzed to prioritize order of interventions. The primary outcome measure was number of laboratory tests performed per 1000 patient days. Secondary outcome measures included number of blood glucose and serum bilirubin tests per 1000 patient days, blood volume removed per 1000 patient days, and cost. Extreme laboratory values were tracked and reviewed as balancing measures. Statistical process control charts were used to track measures over time.RESULTS
Over a 24-month period, we achieved a 26.8% decrease in laboratory tests performed per 1000 patient days (51 000 fewer tests). We observed significant decreases in all secondary measures, including a decrease of almost 8 L of blood drawn and a savings of $258 000. No extreme laboratory values were deemed attributable to the interventions. Improvement was sustained for an additional 7 months.CONCLUSIONS
Targeted interventions, including guideline development, dashboard creation and distribution, electronic medical record optimization, and expansion of noninvasive and point-of-care testing resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in laboratory testing without notable adverse effects.
Pediatric behavioral health admissions to children’s hospitals for disposition planning are steadily increasing. These children may exhibit violent behaviors, which can escalate to application of physical limb restraints for safety. Using quality improvement methodology, we sought to decrease physical restraint use on children admitted to our children’s hospital for behavioral health conditions from a baseline mean of 2.6% of behavioral health patient days to <1%.METHODS
We included all children ≥3 years of age admitted to our hospital medicine service with a primary behavioral health diagnosis from July 1, 2016, to February 1, 2020. A multidisciplinary team, formed in July 2018, tested interventions based on key drivers targeted toward our aim. The primary outcome measure was the percent of behavioral health patient days on which physical restraints were ordered. The balancing measure was the percent of patient days with a staff injury event. Statistical process control charts were used to view and analyze data.RESULTS
Our cohort included 3962 consecutive behavioral health patient encounters, encompassing a total of 9758 patient days. A 2-year baseline revealed physical restraint orders placed on 2.6% of behavioral health patient days, which was decreased to 0.9% after interventions and has been sustained over 19 months without any change in staff injuries.CONCLUSIONS
Team-based quality improvement methodology was associated with a sustained reduction in physical restraint use on children admitted for behavioral health conditions to our children’s hospital. These results indicate that physical restraint use can be safely reduced in children’s hospitals.
Caregivers of children with medical complexity (CMC) face many stressors related to their child’s medical condition(s). Financial stress and its impact on housing has been reported to be a challenge among this population. However, unique housing challenges specific to CMC, including disability accommodations in the home and housing space and layout, have yet to be examined in the literature.METHODS
We conducted 20 individual semistructured interviews with parents of CMC. Interviews were recorded, coded, and analyzed by using thematic analysis to emphasize, examine, and record patterns of meaning within the data.RESULTS
Eighteen mothers and 2 fathers participated in individual interviews. Two major themes and subthemes (in parentheses) were identified: (1) the impact of health on housing (housing preferences, housing possibilities, and housing outcome as a trade-off) and (2) the impact of housing on health (health of the caregiver and health of the child). Parents had preferences regarding the location and layout of their home specific to their child’s illness and medical needs. In addition, parents indicated their child’s illness affected their income and home ownership status, which in turn shaped their housing possibilities. The location and layout of the family home was often the result of a trade-off between the caregiver’s housing preferences and possibilities.CONCLUSIONS
Housing outcomes among CMC are often the result of a trade-off between housing preferences and possibilities, both of which are influenced by the child’s health status. Policy changes targeting housing accessibility and affordability are vital to support the health of CMC.
Congenital anomalies affect 3% to 5% of births and remain the leading cause of infant death in the United States. As whole exome and genome sequencing are increasingly used to diagnose underlying genetic disease, the patient’s clinical presentation remains the most important context for interpreting sequencing results, including frequently reported variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Classification of a variant as VUS acknowledges limits on evidence to establish whether a variant can be classified as pathogenic or benign according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Importantly, the VUS designation reflects limits on the breadth of evidence linking the genetic variant to a disease. However, available evidence, although limited, may be surprisingly relevant in an individual patient’s case. Accordingly, a VUS result should be approached neither as nondiagnostic genetic result nor as automatically "uncertain" in its potential to guide clinical decision-making. In this article, we discuss a case of an infant born at 29 weeks 4 days without a corpus callosum, whose whole genome sequencing yielded compound heterozygous variants both classified as VUS in ROBO1, a gene encoding for a receptor involved in a canonical signaling mechanism that guides axons across midline. Approaching the VUS result as potentially pathogenic, we found the infant ultimately had pituitary dysfunction and renal anomalies consistent with other reported ROBO1 variants and basic science literature. Accordingly, we highlight resources for variant interpretation available to clinicians to evaluate VUS results, particularly as they inform the diagnosis of individually rare but collectively common rare diseases.
Studies supporta recent decline in public benefit enrollment among immigrant families. We aimed to describe health and resource use, barriers to use, and immigration-related fear in families with undocumented parents compared with families without undocumented parents. We also aimed to assess associations with discontinuation of public benefits and fear of deportation.METHODS
We assessed immigration concerns and enrollment in Medicaid, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) with an 89-item anonymous, cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking caregivers of hospitalized children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations with discontinuation of public benefits and fear of deportation.RESULTS
Of 527 families approached, 399 enrolled (105 with 1 or more undocumented parent, 275 with no undocumented parent, and 19 with undisclosed immigration status). Compared with families without undocumented parents, families with undocumented parents had higher levels of poverty and food insecurity. Controlling for perceived eligibility, public benefit use was similar across groups. Of families with undocumented parents, 29% reported public benefit discontinuation because of immigration concerns, and 71% reported fear of deportation. Having an undocumented parent was associated with public benefit disenrollment (odds ratio: 46.7; 95% confidence interval: 5.9–370.4) and fear of deportation (odds ratio: 24.3; 95% confidence interval: 9.6–61.9).CONCLUSIONS
Although families with undocumented parents had higher levels of poverty and food insecurity compared with families without undocumented parents, public benefit use was similar between groups. Immigration-related fear may be a barrier to public benefit use in this population.
Pediatric palliative care (PPC) is integral to the care of children living with serious illnesses. Despite the growth in the number of established palliative care programs over the past decade, little is known about the current operational features of PPC programs across the country.METHODS
The National Palliative Care Registry collects annualized data on palliative care programs’ structures, processes, and staffing. Using data from the 2018 registry survey, we report on the operational features of inpatient PPC programs across the United States.RESULTS
Fifty-four inpatient PPC programs submitted data about their operations. Programs reported a median of 3.8 full-time equivalent staff per 10 000 hospital admissions (range 0.7–12.1) across the core interdisciplinary team, yet few (37%) met the minimum standards of practice for staffing. Programs provided more annual consults if they were longer-standing, had more interdisciplinary full-time equivalent staff, offered 24/7 availability for patients and families, or were at larger hospitals. The majority of programs reported concern for burnout (63%) and an inability to meet clinical demand with available staffing (60%).CONCLUSIONS
There is considerable variability in PPC program operations and structure in hospitals. This study affirms the need for updated program standards and guidelines, as well as research that describes how different care delivery models impact outcomes for patients, families, staff, and health care systems. Future studies that further define the clinical demand, workload, and sustainability challenges of PPC programs are necessary to foster the provision of high-quality PPC and maintain a vital clinical workforce.
Maintenance intravenous fluids (IVFs) are commonly used in the hospital setting. Hypotonic IVFs are commonly used in pediatrics despite concerns about high incidence of hyponatremia. We aimed to increase isotonic maintenance IVF use in children admitted from the emergency department (ED) from a baseline of 20% in 2018 to >80% by December 2019.METHODS
We included patients aged 28 days to 18 years receiving maintenance IVFs (rate >10 mL/hour) at the time of admission. Patients with active chronic medical problems were excluded. Interventions included institutional discussions on isotonic IVF based on literature review, education on isotonic IVF use per the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline (isotonic IVF use with appropriate potassium chloride and dextrose), electronic medical record changes to encourage isotonic IVF use, and group practice review with individual physician audit and feedback. Balancing measures were the frequency of serum electrolyte checks within 24 hours of ED admission and occurrence of hypernatremia. Data were analyzed by using statistical process control charts.RESULTS
Isotonic maintenance IVF use improved, with special cause observed twice; the 80% goal was met and sustained. No difference was noted in serum electrolyte checks within 24 hours of admission (P > .05). There was no increase in occurrence of hypernatremia among patients who received isotonic IVF compared with those who received hypotonic IVF (P > .05).CONCLUSIONS
The application of improvement methods resulted in improved isotonic IVF use in ED patients admitted to the inpatient setting. Institutional readiness for change at the time of the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline release and hardwiring of preferred fluids via electronic medical record changes were critical to success.
A diverse pediatric workforce reflecting the racial/ethnic representation of the US population is an important factor in eliminating health inequities. Studies reveal minimal improvements over time in the proportions of underrepresented in medicine (URiM) physicians; however, studies assessing trends in pediatric URiM trainee representation are limited. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal trends in racial/ethnic representation among a cross-section of US pediatric trainees and to compare it to the US population.METHODS
Repeated cross-sectional study of graduate medical education census data on self-reported race/ethnicity of pediatric residents and subspecialty fellows from 2007 to 2019. To evaluate trends in URiM proportions over time, the Cochran-Armitage test was performed. Data on self-reported race/ethnicity of trainees were compared with the general population data over time by using US Census Bureau data.RESULTS
Trends in URiM proportions were unchanged in residents (16% in 2007 to 16.5% in 2019; P = .98) and, overall, decreased for fellows (14.2% in 2007 to 13.5% in 2019; P = .002). URiM fellow trends significantly decreased over time in neonatal-perinatal medicine (P < .001), infectious diseases (P < .001), and critical care (P = .006) but significantly increased in endocrinology (P = .002) and pulmonology (P = .009). Over time, the percentage of URiM pediatric trainee representation was considerably lower compared to the US population.CONCLUSIONS
The continued underrepresentation of URiM pediatric trainees may perpetuate persistent health inequities for minority pediatric populations. There is a critical need to recruit and retain pediatric URiM residents and subspecialty fellows.
The progression of gender-expansive behavior to gender dysphoria and to gender-affirming hormonal treatment (GAHT) in children and adolescents is poorly understood.METHODS
A cohort of 958 gender-diverse (GD) children and adolescents who did not have a gender dysphoria–related diagnosis (GDRD) or GAHT at index were identified. Rates of first GDRD and first GAHT prescription were compared across demographic groups.RESULTS
Overall, 29% of participants received a GDRD and 25% were prescribed GAHT during the average follow-up of 3.5 years (maximum 9 years). Compared with youth assigned male sex at birth, those assigned female sex at birth were more likely to receive a diagnosis and initiate GAHT with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) estimates of 1.3 (1.0–1.7), and 2.5 (1.8–3.3), respectively. A progression to diagnosis was more common among those aged ≥15 years at initial presentation compared with those aged 10 to 14 years and those aged 3 to 9 years (37% vs 28% vs 16%, respectively). By using the youngest group as a reference, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for a GDRD were 2.0 (1.3–3.0) for age 10 to 14 years and 2.7 (1.8–3.9) for age ≥15 years. Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to receive a diagnosis or be prescribed GAHT.CONCLUSIONS
This study characterized the progression of GD behavior in children and adolescents. Less than one-third of GD youth receive an eventual GDRD, and approximately one-quarter receive GAHT. Female sex at birth, older age of initial GD presentation to medical care, and non-Hispanic white race and ethnicity increased the likelihood of receiving diagnosis and treatment.
Blunt use is a popular mode of marijuana consumption among adolescents in the United States, but little is known about how its prevalence has changed over time or factors associated with its use. With this study, we assessed trends and correlates of past (ever used but not in the past 30 days) and current (used in past 30 days) blunt use among adolescents in Florida.METHODS
We analyzed data from 2010–2020 cross-sectional, statewide representative Florida Youth Tobacco Surveys that comprised 461 706 middle and high schoolers using Joinpoint to calculate annual percentage change (APC) in the weighted prevalence of past and current blunt use. A weighted multivariable regression model was developed by using 2019–2020 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey data to examine the factors associated with past and current blunt use.RESULTS
Whereas the prevalence of past (APC = –5.32%) and current (APC = –5.28%) blunt use significantly decreased from 2010 to 2015, an increasing trend in current use prevalence (APC = 14.91%) was observed from 2015 to 2018 and has been approximately constant ever since. Similar increasing trends were observed in current blunt use among female students (APC = 14.92%), middle schoolers (19.57%), and non-Hispanic (NH) white students (APC = 11.12%) from 2016 to 2020. Several factors were consistently associated with greater odds of both past and current blunt use for both middle and high schoolers, including older age, being NH Black (versus NH white), past and current use of cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and ever vaping marijuana.CONCLUSIONS
Although blunt use among Florida youth decreased from 2010 to 2015, substantial increases were observed since 2015, suggesting that existing tobacco control programs should incorporate marijuana (and blunt) modules into existing tobacco and nicotine prevention programs.
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is a disease with considerable morbidity, yet the incidence and risk for relapse have not been systematically reviewed.OBJECTIVE
To estimate the overall pooled weighted incidence and risk for relapse of INS in children.DATA SOURCES
Medline and Embase (until December 2020).STUDY SELECTION
All studies reporting incidence (per 100 000 children per year) and/or risk for relapse (the proportion of patients who experience ≥1 relapse) of INS in children (age: <18 years) were eligible.DATA EXTRACTION
After quality assessment, data were extracted: study (design, localization, and sample size) and patient (age, sex, steroid response, and ethnicity) characteristics, incidence, and risk for relapse.RESULTS
After screening, 73 studies were included for analysis (27 incidence, 54 relapse). The overall pooled weighted estimate and corresponding prediction interval (PI) of the incidence was 2.92 (95% PI: 0.00–6.51) per 100 000 children per year. Higher incidences were found in non-Western countries (P < .001). Incidence tended to be lower in white children, but this was not significant. The overall pooled weighted estimate of the risk for relapse was 71.9% (95% PI: 38.8–95.5). Between 1945 and 2011, incidence did not change (P = .39), yet the risk for relapse decreased significantly (P = .024), from 87.4% to 66.2%.LIMITATIONS
There was no full-text availability (n = 33), considerable heterogeneity, and limited studies from Africa, Latin America, and Asia.CONCLUSIONS
INS has a low incidence with ethnic variation but high risk for relapse. Although corticosteroids have significantly reduced the risk for relapse, it remains unacceptably high, underscoring the need for alternative treatment strategies.
The Following Baby Back Home (FBBH) home visiting program supports families of high-risk low birth weight preterm infants after discharge from a hospital NICU. This study compares the health care use, immunization, and infant mortality rate of low birth weight preterm infants enrolled in FBBH with similar infants not in the program.METHODS
From January 2013 to December 2017, 498 children enrolled in FBBH were identified in Arkansas vital statistics records and the Arkansas All-Payer Claims Database. Infants in FBBH were matched with children in a control group on the basis of demographics and medical conditions of the infant. Generalized linear mixed models with double propensity-score adjustment were used to estimate program effects.RESULTS
In the first year after discharge and compared with a propensity-score matched cohort of control infants, those enrolled in FBBH were significantly more likely to have higher numbers of medical appointments and more compliant immunization history. The odds of dying in the first year of life for control infants was 4.4 times (95% confidence interval: 1.2–20.7) higher than those managed in the program.CONCLUSIONS
A goal of the FBBH home visiting program is to work with parents to educate and support them as they care for their medically fragile infants. We conclude that education and support was instrumental in the infant health care use and outcome differences we observed during the first year of life.
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network recently proposed new, severity-based diagnostic criteria for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study provides the first benchmark epidemiological data applying this definition.METHODS
Retrospective cohort study of infants born from 22 to 29 weeks’ gestation in 2018 at 715 US hospitals in the Vermont Oxford Network. Rates of BPD, major neonatal morbidities, and common respiratory therapies, stratified by BPD severity, were determined.RESULTS
Among 24 896 infants, 2574 (10.3%) died before 36 weeks’ postmenstrual age (PMA), 12 198 (49.0%) did not develop BPD, 9192 (36.9%) developed grade 1 or 2 BPD, and 932 (3.7%) developed grade 3 BPD. Rates of mortality before 36 weeks’ PMA and grade 3 BPD decreased from 52.7% and 9.9%, respectively, among infants born at 22 weeks’ gestation to 17.3% and 0.8% among infants born at 29 weeks’ gestation. Grade 1 or 2 BPD peaked in incidence (51.8%) among infants born at 25 weeks’ gestation. The frequency of severe intraventricular hemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia increased from 4.8% among survivors without BPD to 23.4% among survivors with grade 3 BPD. Similar ranges were observed for late onset sepsis (4.8%–31.4%), surgically treated necrotizing enterocolitis (1.4%–17.1%), severe retinopathy of prematurity (1.2%–23.0%), and home oxygen therapy (2.0%–67.5%).CONCLUSIONS
More than one-half of very preterm infants born in the United States died before 36 weeks’ PMA or developed BPD. Greater BPD severity was associated with more frequent development of major neonatal morbidities, in-hospital mortality, and use of supplemental respiratory support at discharge.
The coronavirus pandemic created significant, abrupt challenges to the delivery of ambulatory health care. Because tertiary medical centers limited elective in-person services, telehealth was rapidly enacted in settings with minimal previous experience to allow continued access to care. With this quality improvement (QI) initiative, we aimed to achieve a virtual visit volume of at least 75% of our prepandemic volume. We also describe patient and provider experience with telehealth services.METHODS
Our QI team identified the primary drivers contributing to low telehealth volume and developed a telehealth scheduling protocol and data tracking system using QI-based strategies. Patients and providers were surveyed on their telehealth experience.RESULTS
At the onset of the pandemic, weekly visit volume dropped by 65% (99 weekly visits; historical average of 281). Over the subsequent 3 weeks, using rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, we achieved our goal volume. In surveys, it was indicated that most participants had never before used telehealth (71% of patients; 82% of providers) yet reported high satisfaction (90% of patients; 81% of providers). Both groups expressed concern over the lack of in-person assessments. Most respondents were interested in future use of telehealth.CONCLUSIONS
With a QI-based approach, we successfully maintained access to care via telehealth services for pediatric pulmonary patients during the coronavirus pandemic and found high rates of satisfaction among patients and providers. Telehealth will likely continue to be a part of our health care delivery platform, expanding the reach of our services. Further work is needed to understand the effects on clinical outcomes.