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Neonatal Mastitis and Concurrent Serious Bacterial Infection

Jue, 01/07/2021 - 10:01

Describe the clinical presentation, prevalence, and outcomes of concurrent serious bacterial infection (SBI) among infants with mastitis.


Within the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee, 28 sites reviewed records of infants aged ≤90 days with mastitis who were seen in the emergency department between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were summarized.


Among 657 infants (median age 21 days), 641 (98%) were well appearing, 138 (21%) had history of fever at home or in the emergency department, and 63 (10%) had reported fussiness or poor feeding. Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were collected in 581 (88%), 274 (42%), and 216 (33%) infants, respectively. Pathogens grew in 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–1.2) of blood, 1.1% (95% CI 0.2–3.2) of urine, and 0.4% (95% CI 0.01–2.5) of cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Cultures from the site of infection were obtained in 335 (51%) infants, with 77% (95% CI 72–81) growing a pathogen, most commonly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (54%), followed by methicillin-susceptible S aureus (29%), and unspecified S aureus (8%). A total of 591 (90%) infants were admitted to the hospital, with 22 (3.7%) admitted to an ICU. Overall, 10 (1.5% [95% CI 0.7–2.8]) had sepsis or shock, and 2 (0.3% [95% CI 0.04–1.1]) had severe cellulitis or necrotizing soft tissue infection. None received vasopressors or endotracheal intubation. There were no deaths.


In this multicenter cohort, mild localized disease was typical of neonatal mastitis. SBI and adverse outcomes were rare. Evaluation for SBI is likely unnecessary in most afebrile, well-appearing infants with mastitis.

Promoting Healthy Sexuality for Children and Adolescents With Disabilities

Jue, 01/07/2021 - 10:01

This clinical report updates a 2006 report from the American Academy of Pediatrics titled "Sexuality of Children and Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities." The development of a healthy sexuality best occurs through appropriate education, absence of coercion and violence, and developmental acquisition of skills to navigate feelings, desires, relationships, and social pressures. Pediatric health care providers are important resources for anticipatory guidance and education for all children and youth as they understand their changing bodies, feelings, and behaviors. Yet, youth with disabilities and their families report inadequate education and guidance from pediatricians regarding sexual health development. In the decade since the original clinical report was published, there have been many advancements in the understanding and care of children and youth with disabilities, in part because of an increased prevalence and breadth of autism spectrum disorder as well as an increased longevity of individuals with medically complex and severely disabling conditions. During this same time frame, sexual education in US public schools has diminished, and there is emerging evidence that the attitudes and beliefs of all youth (with and without disability) about sex and sexuality are being formed through media rather than formal education or parent and/or health care provider sources. This report aims to provide the pediatric health care provider with resources and tools for clinical practice to address the sexual development of children and youth with disabilities. The report emphasizes strategies to promote competence in achieving a healthy sexuality regardless of physical, cognitive, or socioemotional limitations.