Children born very preterm (<32 weeks’ gestation) have more neurodevelopmental problems compared with term-born peers. Aberrant fidgety movements (FMs) are associated with adverse motor outcomes in children born very preterm. However, associations of aberrant FMs combined with additional movements and postures to give a motor optimality score-revised (MOS-R) with school-aged cognitive and motor outcomes are unclear. Our aim with this study was to determine those associations.METHODS
Of 118 infants born <30 weeks’ gestation recruited into a randomized controlled trial of early intervention, 97 had a general movements assessment at 3 months’ corrected age and were eligible for this study. Early motor repertoire including FMs and MOS-R were scored from videos of infant’s spontaneous movement at 3 months’ corrected age. At 8 years’ corrected age, cognitive and motor performances were evaluated. Associations of early FMs and MOS-R with outcomes at 8 years were determined using linear regression.RESULTS
Seventy-eight (80%) infants with early motor repertoire data had neurodevelopmental assessments at 8 years. A higher MOS-R, and favorable components of the individual subscales of the MOS-R, including the presence of normal FMs, were associated with better performance for general cognition, attention, working memory, executive function and motor function at 8 years; eg, presence of normal FMs was associated with a 21.6 points higher general conceptual ability score (95% confidence interval: 12.8–30.5; P < .001) compared with absent FMs.CONCLUSIONS
Favorable early motor repertoire of infants born <30 weeks is strongly associated with improved cognitive and motor performance at 8 years.
Suicidal ideation and plans are increasing among US adolescents. Changing prevalence of online victimization is frequently hypothesized as an explanation for this increase. We tested trends in online and offline victimization and whether they contribute to recent trends in adolescent suicidal outcomes.METHODS
Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (2011–2019, N = 73 074) were collected biennially through national cross-sectional surveys of US school-attending adolescents. We examined trends in past-year victimization. We also examined whether the relationship between victimization and past-year suicidal ideation, plans, attempts, and injury changed over time using survey-weighted logistic regressions that adjusted for sex and race and ethnicity. We also sex-stratified results to examine sex differences.RESULTS
Although suicidal ideation and plans increased among US adolescents (mainly girls), online and offline victimization prevalence did not increase over time (offline: 20.0% in 2011, 19.5% in 2019; online: 16.2% in 2011, 15.7% in 2019). Online and offline victimization were associated with suicidal outcomes, especially co-occurring online and offline victimization (eg, adjusted odds ratio [co-occurring online and offline victimization versus none, outcome: suicidal injury] = 8.37; 95% confidence interval: 7.06–9.91). The magnitude of the associations between victimization and suicidal outcomes largely remained stable over time.CONCLUSION
Peer victimization prevalence has not sufficiently changed over time in concert with suicidal outcomes to explain increased suicidal outcomes. The prevalence of victimization has remained relatively invariant across time despite growing awareness and programming, making online and offline victimization consistent, socially-patterned risk factors that warrant further monitoring and interventions. Research must examine risk factors beyond victimization to explain increasing suicidal outcomes.
Large, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are essential in answering pivotal questions in child health.METHODS
We created a bird’s eye view of all large, noncluster, nonvaccine pediatric RCTs with ≥1000 participants registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (last search January 9, 2020). We analyzed the funding sources, countries, outcomes, publication status, and correlation with the pediatric global burden of disease (GBD) for eligible trials.RESULTS
We identified 247 large, nonvaccine, noncluster pediatric RCTs. Only 17 mega-trials with ≥5000 participants existed. Industry funding was involved in only 52 (21%) and exclusively funded 47 (19%) trials. Participants were from high-income countries (HICs) in 100 (40%) trials, from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in 122 (49%) trials, and from both HICs and LMICs in 19 (8%) trials; 6 trials did not report participants’ country location. Of trials conducted in LMIC, 43% of investigators were from HICs. Of non-LMIC participants trials (HIC or HIC and LMIC), 39% were multicountry trials versus 11% of exclusively LMIC participants trials. Few trials (18%; 44 of 247) targeted mortality as an outcome. 35% (58 of 164) of the trials completed ≥12 months were unpublished at the time of our assessment. The number of trials per disease category correlated well with pediatric GBD overall ( = 0.76) and in LMICs ( = 0.69), but not in HICs ( = 0.29).CONCLUSIONS
Incentivization of investigator collaborations across diverse country settings, timely publication of results of large pediatric RCTs, and alignment with the pediatric GBD are of pivotal importance to ultimately improve child health globally.
Respiratory diseases are common in children with esophageal atresia (EA), leading to increased morbidity and mortality in the first year. The primary study objective was to identify the factors associated with readmissions for respiratory causes in the first year in EA children.METHODS
A population-based study. We included all children born between 2008 and 2016 with available data and analyzed factors at birth and 1 year follow-up. Factors with a P value <.10 in univariate analyses were retained in logistic regression models.RESULTS
Among 1460 patients born with EA, 97 (7%) were deceased before the age of 1 year, and follow-up data were available for 1287 patients, who constituted our study population. EAs were Ladd classification type III or IV in 89%, preterm birth was observed in 38%, and associated malformations were observed in 52%. Collectively, 61% were readmitted after initial discharge in the first year, 31% for a respiratory cause. Among these, respiratory infections occurred in 64%, and 35% received a respiratory treatment. In logistic regression models, factors associated with readmission for a respiratory cause were recurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula, aortopexy, antireflux surgery, and tube feeding; factors associated with respiratory treatment were male sex and laryngeal cleft.CONCLUSIONS
Respiratory morbidity in the first year after EA repair is frequent, accounting for >50% of readmissions. Identifying high risk groups of EA patients (ie, those with chronic aspiration, anomalies of the respiratory tract, and need for tube feeding) may guide follow-up strategies.
To evaluate newborn pulse oximetry screening (POS) outcomes at a large community hospital and the impact of the recommended revised POS algorithm.METHODS
A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the results of POS in the well-infant nursery between 2012 and 2020. The POS results were obtained from an electronic platform. Chart review was completed for newborns with failed screens. The recommended revision to POS, no second rescreen, was applied to the data to evaluate screening outcomes.RESULTS
Of the total 65 414 infants admitted to the well-infant nursery during this 8-year period, >99% (n = 64 780) received POS. Thirty-one infants failed POS (4.6 per 10 000 screened). All infants who failed POS were found to have a disorder, with 12 (39%) having critical congenital heart disease (CCHD), 9 (29%) having non-CCHD requiring further follow-up, and 10 (32%) having noncardiac conditions. One false-negative screen result was identified through the Maryland Department of Health Newborn Screening Follow-up Program. The positive predictive value of POS for those screened was 39% for CCHD, with a specificity of 99.97%. Eliminating the second rescreen in the POS algorithm would have resulted in an additional 5 newborns without CCHD failing POS, increasing the false-positive rate from 0.03% to 0.04%.CONCLUSIONS
POS is an effective tool for identifying CCHD and secondary conditions. POS was successfully implemented with few missed screens and was highly specific. Elimination of the second rescreen in the pulse oximetry algorithm would have resulted in a minimal increase in false-positive results and faster evaluation of newborns with CCHD.
Well-child care is a near-universal service for young children toward which a great deal of time and professional resources are devoted but for which there is scant evidence of effectiveness in routine practice. It is composed of many components, the value of which likely varies with the quality of their provision and the needs and priorities of the children and families who receive them. Achieving more efficient and effective preventive care will require that pediatric practices segment the population they serve and design schedules and staffing to match patients’ health, well-being, personal and social circumstances, and service needs. Care should be individualized and include essential screening, tests, procedures, and education on the basis of assessment of patients’ and families’ needs and priorities. The traditional schedule of individual, comprehensive preventive care visits should be reconsidered and replaced with a schedule that allows complete care to be provided over a series of visits, including those for acute and chronic care. Preventive pediatric care should be provided in family-centered, team-based practices with strong linkages to other providers in the community who serve and support children and families. Care should make use of the wide variety of modalities that exist, and face-to-face time should be reserved for those services that are both important and uniquely responsive to in-office intervention. This model of preventive care will require changes in training, responsibilities and reimbursement of health care team members, and enhanced communication and collaboration among all involved, especially with families.
Vaccine hesitancy is a growing threat to health in the United States. Facing the fourth highest vaccine exemption rate in the United States in 2014, Michigan changed its state Administrative Rules, effective January 1, 2015, requiring parents to attend an in-person vaccine education session at their local health department before obtaining a nonmedical exemption (NME). In this article, we evaluate the longer-term impact of this policy change on the rate, spatial distribution, and sociodemographic predictors of NMEs in Michigan.METHODS
Using school-level kindergarten vaccination data from Michigan from 2011 to 2018, we evaluated sociodemographic predictors of NMEs before and after this Administrative Rule change using Bayesian binomial regression. We measured the persistence and location of school district–level geographic clustering using local indicators of spatial association.RESULTS
Immediately after the rule change, rates of NMEs fell by 32%. However, NME rates rebounded in subsequent years, increasing by 26% by 2018, although income disparities in NME rates decreased after the rule change. Philosophical, religious, and medical vaccine exemptions exhibited distinct geographic patterns across the state, which largely persisted after 2015, illustrating that NME clusters remain a concern despite this rule change.CONCLUSIONS
Although Michigan’s Administrative Rule change caused a short-term decline in NME rates, NME rates have risen dramatically in the following 4 years since the policy was implemented. Michigan’s administrative effort to require parental education at the local health department before receiving an exemption did not cause a sustained reduction in the rate or spatial distribution of NMEs.
To identify independent predictors of and derive a risk score for invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.METHODS
In this 23-center nested case-control study, we matched 149 infants with HSV to 1340 controls; all were ≤60 days old and had cerebrospinal fluid obtained within 24 hours of presentation or had HSV detected. The primary and secondary outcomes were invasive (disseminated or central nervous system) or any HSV infection, respectively.RESULTS
Of all infants included, 90 (60.4%) had invasive and 59 (39.6%) had skin, eyes, and mouth disease. Predictors independently associated with invasive HSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4–24.5] <14 and 6.4 [95% CI: 2.3 to 17.8] 14–28 days, respectively, compared with >28 days), prematurity (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.1), seizure at home (aOR: 6.1, 95% CI: 2.3 to 16.4), ill appearance (aOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.0 to 8.4), abnormal triage temperature (aOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6 to 5.3), vesicular rash (aOR: 54.8, (95% CI: 16.6 to 180.9), thrombocytopenia (aOR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 12.4), and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (aOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.0). These variables were transformed to derive the HSV risk score (point range 0–17). Infants with invasive HSV had a higher median score (6, interquartile range: 4–8) than those without invasive HSV (3, interquartile range: 1.5–4), with an area under the curve for invasive HSV disease of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80–0.91). When using a cut-point of ≥3, the HSV risk score had a sensitivity of 95.6% (95% CI: 84.9% to 99.5%), specificity of 40.1% (95% CI: 36.8% to 43.6%), and positive likelihood ratio 1.60 (95% CI: 1.5 to 1.7) and negative likelihood ratio 0.11 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.43).CONCLUSIONS
A novel HSV risk score identified infants at extremely low risk for invasive HSV who may not require routine testing or empirical treatment.
Approximately one-third of all pediatric hospital charges are attributable to the care for children living with neurologic comorbidities. These children often require various surgical procedures and may have an elevated risk of lower respiratory infections because of poor neuromuscular coordination, poor cough, uncoordinated swallowing, and poor oral hygiene. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of pneumonia in children presenting with neurologic comorbidities.METHODS
We performed a retrospective study of children (<18 years) who underwent inpatient surgery between 2012 and 2018 in hospitals participating in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Our primary outcome was the time to incident pneumonia within the 30 days after surgery.RESULTS
We identified 349 163 children, of whom 2191 developed pneumonia (30-day cumulative incidence: 0.6%). The presence of a preoperative neurologic comorbidity conferred approximately twofold higher risk of postoperative pneumonia (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73–2.11). We explored the risk of pneumonia conferred by the components of neurologic comorbidity: cerebral palsy (HR: 3.92, 95% CI: 3.38–4.56), seizure disorder (HR: 2.93, 95% CI: 2.60–3.30), neuromuscular disorder (HR: 2.63, 95% CI: 2.32–2.99). The presence of a neurologic comorbidity was associated with a longer length of hospital stay (incidence rate ratio: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.25–1.28).CONCLUSIONS
The risk of postoperative pneumonia was almost twofold higher in children with neurologic comorbidity. The magnitude of these associations underscores the need to identify areas of research and preventive strategies to reduce the excess risk of pneumonia in children with preoperative neurologic conditions.
This study sought to examine the prevalence and factors associated with youth vaping cessation behaviors.METHODS
Current (past 30-day) electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette) users from the 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1660, typically aged 11–18 years) were analyzed to examine the prevalence of youth intention to quit vaping, past-year quit attempts, and the frequency of quit attempts. Multivariable logistic or linear regressions were performed to assess the correlates with youth vaping cessation behaviors.RESULTS
In 2020, 53.4% of current e-cigarette users reported intention to quit vaping and 67.4% reported having tried to quit vaping. Intention to quit was lower among female individuals (versus male individuals, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.7, P = .0004), users of a modifiable system (versus disposable e-cigarettes, aOR = 0.4, P = .0204), and dual or poly users (versus sole e-cigarette use, aOR = 0.7, P = .0144). e-cigarette harm perception was positively associated with intention to quit (aOR = 2.2, P < .0001) and past-year quit attempts (aOR = 1.6, P = .0037). Reasons for e-cigarette use were related to cessation behaviors. Adolescents who vaped because of curiosity had higher odds of past-year quit attempts (aOR = 1.4, P = .0306), whereas users to disguise vaping had a lower likelihood of intention to quit (aOR=0.4, P < .0001) and past-year quit attempts (aOR = 0.7, P = .0126). The average number of past-year quit attempts was 5.3, and it was lower among female individuals (versus male individuals), users of e-cigarettes with prefilled pods or cartridges (versus disposable e-cigarettes), and those with nicotine cravings (versus no nicotine craving).CONCLUSIONS
Intention to quit vaping and past-year quit attempts are prevalent among US adolescent e-cigarette users. The study findings inform the development of multifaceted vaping cessation programs to take sex, e-cigarette devices, vaping reasons and patterns, harm perception, and nicotine dependence into account.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is typically characterized by low or low-normal serum sodium concentrations, which rise as hyperglycemia resolves. In retrospective studies, researchers found associations between declines in sodium concentrations during DKA and cerebral injury. We prospectively investigated determinants of sodium concentration changes and associations with mental status alterations during DKA.METHODS
Using data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Trial, we compared children who had declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations with those who had rising or stable concentrations. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intravenous fluid protocols that differed in infusion rate and sodium content. Data from the first 4, 8, and 12 hours of treatment were analyzed for 1251, 1086, and 877 episodes, respectively.RESULTS
In multivariable analyses, declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations were associated with higher sodium and chloride concentrations at presentation and with previously diagnosed diabetes. Treatment with 0.45% (vs 0.9%) sodium chloride fluids was also associated with declines in sodium concentration; however, higher rates of fluid infusion were associated with declines in sodium concentration only at 12 hours. Frequencies of abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale scores and clinical diagnoses of cerebral injury were similar in patients with and without declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations.CONCLUSIONS
Changes in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations during DKA treatment are influenced by the balance of free-water loss versus sodium loss at presentation and the sodium content of intravenous fluids. Declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations are not associated with mental status changes during treatment.
In this randomized trial, we compared the effectiveness of 2 diets (enhanced stop light diet [eSLD] versus conventional meal plan diet [CD]) and 2 delivery strategies (face–to–face [FTF] versus remote delivery [RD]) on weight loss across 6 months in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities who were overweight or obese.METHODS
Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 arms (FTF/CD, RD/CD, or RD/eSLD) and asked to attend one-on-one sessions with a health educator every 2 weeks to aid in maintaining compliance with recommendations for a reduced-energy diet and increased physical activity. The CD followed the US dietary guidelines. The eSLD used the stop light guide and was enhanced with portion-controlled meals. The FTF arm was delivered during in-person home visits. The RD arms were delivered by using video conferencing.RESULTS
A total of 110 adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (aged ~16 years, 53% female, BMI 33) were randomly assigned to the FTF/CD (n = 36), RD/CD (n = 39), or RD/eSLD (n = 35) group. Body weight at 6 months was obtained from 97%, 100%, and 86% of participants in the FTF/CD, RD/CD, and RD/eSLD arms, respectively. The eSLD elicited significantly greater weight loss than the CD: RD/eSLD (–5.0 ± 5.9 kg; –6.4%) versus RD/CD (–1.8 ± 4.0 kg; –2.4%) (P = .01). However, weight loss did not differ by delivery strategy: FTF/CD (–0.3 ± 5.0 kg; –0.2%) versus RD/CD (–1.8 ± 4.0 kg; –2.4%) (P = .20).CONCLUSIONS
The eSLD elicited significantly greater 6-month weight loss compared with a CD when both interventions were delivered remotely. Minimal 6-month weight loss, which did not differ significantly between FTF delivery and RD, was observed with a CD.
Despite 1 in 10 children being affected by armed conflicts, there is limited evidence on the effects of conflicts on early childhood development (ECD), an important Sustainable Development Goals indicator. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between exposure to conflicts and ECD.METHODS
We conducted a multinational observational study using population-based data on 27 538 children 36 to 59 months old from Demographic and Health Surveys from 12 low- and middle-income countries merged with prospective data on conflicts from Uppsala Conflict Data Program. We estimated the association between 1 to 5 consecutive years of exposure to conflicts within 50 km and ECD after inverse probability of treatment weighting. Mediators of the relationship between conflicts and ECD were identified. We also estimated the association between conflicts and individual domains of ECD.RESULTS
Exposure to conflicts was associated with a 5.9% decrease (95% confidence interval –7.5% to –4.3%) in the probability of a child being developmentally on track from the first year of exposure. This was compounded after the second year, with 5 consecutive years of exposure associated with a 10.4% decrease in the probability of a child being developmentally on track (95% confidence interval –13.7% to –7.2%). A lack of access to early childhood education was a significant mediator into the fifth year of exposure. Among individual ECD domains, socioemotional development was disproportionately impaired.CONCLUSIONS
Exposure to nearby conflicts is associated with an increased probability of delayed ECD, especially with chronic exposure. Children in affected areas should be provided psychosocial support and early childhood education from an early stage.
STAT3 hyper–immunoglobulin E syndrome (STAT3-HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels, eczema, recurrent skin and respiratory tract infections, and several gastrointestinal (GI) problems. GI manifestations, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, dysphagia, abdominal pain, gut dysmotility, bowel perforation, eosinophilic esophagitis, and diarrhea, have been reported in 60% of patients. Until now, there was no efficient treatment that could effectively manage all aspects of the syndrome. In this report, we present the case of a 21-year-old man who suffered from undetectable pathogenic refractory diarrhea that persisted >21 days despite aggressive antibiotic and steroid treatment since he was 2 years old. STAT3 Int10(–2)A > G splicing mutation-caused STAT3-HIES was diagnosed by next-generation sequencing. The patient had suffered recurrent intestinal and colon perforations since he was 10 years old. He had received multiple surgeries and continuous systemic intravenous immunoglobulin therapy to manage his GI symptoms. However, refractory diarrhea occurring >5 to 6 times per day with severe eczematous dermatitis and frequent abscess formation remained threats to his life. Dupilumab 300 mg every 3 weeks was prescribed to control his skin problems, but the patient’s diarrhea also completely subsided. As such, it appears that dupilumab may not only effectively treat the skin inflammation but also the GI manifestation-related inflammation of STAT3-HIES refractory to traditional immunomodulators.
Telemedicine is widely used but has uncertain value. We assessed telemedicine to further improve outcomes and reduce costs of comprehensive care (CC) for medically complex children.METHODS
We conducted a single-center randomized clinical trial comparing telemedicine with CC relative to CC alone for medically complex children in reducing care days outside the home (clinic, emergency department, or hospital; primary outcome), rate of children developing serious illnesses (causing death, ICU admission, or hospital stay >7 days), and health system costs. We used intent-to-treat Bayesian analyses with neutral prior assuming no benefit. All participants received CC, which included 24/7 phone access to primary care providers (PCPs), low patient-to-PCP ratio, and hospital consultation from PCPs. The telemedicine group also received remote audiovisual communication with the PCPs.RESULTS
Between August 22, 2018, and March 23, 2020, we randomly assigned 422 medically complex children (209 to CC with telemedicine and 213 to CC alone) before meeting predefined stopping rules. The probability of a reduction with CC with telemedicine versus CC alone was 99% for care days outside the home (12.94 vs 16.94 per child-year; Bayesian rate ratio, 0.80 [95% credible interval, 0.66–0.98]), 95% for rate of children with a serious illness (0.29 vs 0.62 per child-year; rate ratio, 0.68 [0.43–1.07]) and 91% for mean total health system costs (US$33 718 vs US$41 281 per child-year; Bayesian cost ratio, 0.85 [0.67–1.08]).CONCLUSION
The addition of telemedicine to CC likely reduced care days outside the home, serious illnesses, other adverse outcomes, and health care costs for medically complex children.
Hospital-wide patient safety programs have been used to ensure appropriate provision of care. Similar approaches have not been widely applied to child maltreatment. In this study, we describe a hospital-system child maltreatment safety program by characterizing the frequency of patients needing further intervention, associations between the age of patient and location of care and need for further intervention, and patients who require immediate intervention.METHODS
For all staff concerns for child maltreatment, a social worker completed a patient at risk (PAR) form. All PAR forms were reviewed within 24 hours by the child abuse team and categorized on the basis of 6 types of interventions, most significantly an "immediate callback." Wilcoxon rank and 2 tests were used for group comparisons.RESULTS
Over a 30-month period, program interventions occurred in 2061 of 7698 PARs (26.8%). The most common reason for a PAR form was physical abuse (32.5%). Subjects requiring an intervention were no different in age than those who did not (median age: 5.6 vs 5.2 years). PAR forms performed in the emergency departments or urgent care were more likely to require an intervention than inpatient (odds ratio: 4.4; 95% confidence interval 3.6–5.3) or clinic (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval 1.7–2.3) PAR forms. Of the 53 immediate callbacks, potential diagnostic errors and safe discharge concerns occurred in nearly one-half, and >40% involved subjects with bruising. Immediate follow-up in the child abuse pediatrician clinic occurred in 87% (46 of 53) of cases, resulting in a new or changed diagnosis in 57% of such cases.CONCLUSIONS
A child maltreatment safety program encompassing a health system can identify and address medical errors.