To describe incidence, health care use, and cost trends for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) who are covered by Medicaid compared with other infants.METHODS:
We used 2004–2014 hospital birth data from the National Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of hospital discharges in the United States (N = 13 102 793). Characteristics and trends among births impacted by NAS were examined by using univariate statistics and logistic regression.RESULTS:
Medicaid covered 73.7% of NAS-related births in 2004 (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.9%–77.9%) and 82.0% of NAS-related births in 2014 (95% CI, 80.5%–83.5%). Among infants covered by Medicaid, NAS incidence increased more than fivefold during our study period, from 2.8 per 1000 births (95% CI, 2.1–3.6) in 2004 to 14.4 per 1000 births (95% CI, 12.9–15.8) in 2014. Infants with NAS who were covered by Medicaid were significantly more likely to be transferred to another hospital and have a longer length of stay than infants without NAS who were enrolled in Medicaid or infants with NAS who were covered by private insurance. Adjusting for inflation, total hospital costs for NAS births that were covered by Medicaid increased from $65.4 million in 2004 to $462 million in 2014. The proportion of neonatal hospital costs due to NAS increased from 1.6% in 2004 to 6.7% in 2014 among births that were covered by Medicaid.CONCLUSIONS:
The number of Medicaid-financed births that are impacted by NAS has risen substantially and totaled $462 million in hospital costs in 2014. Improving affordable health insurance coverage for low-income women before pregnancy would expand access to substance use disorder treatment and could reduce NAS-related morbidity and costs.
We investigated tobacco-related self-identity and risk perceptions among adolescent tobacco users.METHODS:
Data were analyzed for 20 675 US sixth- to 12th-graders from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Students who reported past-30-day use of a specific tobacco product or ≥2 products but denied having used "any tobacco product" in the past 30 days were classified as not self-identifying as tobacco users. Tobacco product harm perceptions were further assessed across products. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.RESULTS:
Among past-30-day users of ≥1 specific tobacco product type, those denying having used any tobacco products in the past 30 days included single-product users of roll-your-own and/or pipe tobacco (82.2%), electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) (59.7%), cigars (56.6%), hookah (44.0%), smokeless tobacco (38.5%), and cigarettes (26.5%) as well as poly-tobacco users (12.7%). The odds of denying using any tobacco products were higher among those without symptoms of nicotine dependence than those with symptoms (adjusted odds ratio = 2.16); and those who access their tobacco products via social sources than those who bought them (adjusted odds ratio = 3.81; all P < .05). Among those believing "all tobacco products" were harmful, single-product users of the following believed their own product was not harmful: e-cigarettes (74.6%), hookah (56.0%), smokeless tobacco (41.8%), and cigarettes (15.5%).CONCLUSIONS:
Many of those who used certain tobacco products exclusively did not self-identify as tobacco users. Increasing the sensitivity of questions used to assess youth tobacco use in surveys and clinical settings can mitigate nondisclosure or underreporting of true tobacco use status.
Hopes of parents of children with serious illness play an important role in decision-making and coping. Little is known about how parent hopes change over time. We describe the changes in parent hopes across multiple domains and time intervals, examine hopes in a subgroup of parents whose child died, and explore the maintenance of domains over time.METHODS:
In a mixed-methods prospective cohort study on decision-making, parents of seriously ill children reported demographic characteristics and hopes at baseline and reported any changes in hopes at 4-, 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-month follow-up visits. Hopes were coded into 9 domains. Hope changes and domain changes were identified for each parent at each visit.RESULTS:
One hundred and ninety-nine parents of 158 patients most often reported hopes in the domains of quality of life (75%), physical body (69%), future well-being (47%), and medical care (34%). Hope percentages increased over time for quality of life (84%), future well-being (64%), and broader meaning (21%). The hope domains reported by parents of children who died were similar to the rest of the sample. The majority of parents who completed 5 to 6 follow-up visits changed at least 1 domain. At the individual parent level, some domains revealed considerable change over time, whereas other domains were stable among a subset of parents.CONCLUSIONS:
The specific hopes and overall areas of hope of parents of seriously ill children vary over time, although most hopes fall within 4 major areas. Accordingly, clinicians should regularly check with parents about their current hopes.
There is an urgent need to understand the safety of e-cigarettes with adolescents. We sought to identify the presence of chemical toxicants associated with e-cigarette use among adolescents.METHODS:
Adolescent e-cigarette users (≥1 use within the past 30 days, ≥10 lifetime e-cigarette use episodes) were divided into e-cigarette–only users (no cigarettes in the past 30 days, urine 4-[methylnitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanol [NNAL] level <1 pg/mL of creatinine; n = 67), dual users (use of cigarettes in the past 30 days in addition to e-cigarettes, NNAL level >30 pg/mL; n = 16), and never-using controls (N = 20). Saliva was collected within 24 hours of the last e-cigarette use for analysis of cotinine and urine for analysis of NNAL and levels of 8 volatile organic chemical compounds. Bivariate analyses compared e-cigarette–only users with dual users, and regression analyses compared e-cigarette–only users with dual users and controls on levels of toxicants.RESULTS:
The participants were 16.4 years old on average. Urine excretion of metabolites of benzene, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, acrolein, and acrylamide was significantly higher in dual users versus e-cigarette–only users (all P < .05). Excretion of metabolites of acrylonitrile, acrolein, propylene oxide, acrylamide, and crotonaldehyde were significantly higher in e-cigarette–only users compared with controls (all P < .05).CONCLUSIONS:
Although e-cigarette vapor may be less hazardous than tobacco smoke, our findings can be used to challenge the idea that e-cigarette vapor is safe, because many of the volatile organic compounds we identified are carcinogenic. Messaging to teenagers should include warnings about the potential risk from toxic exposure to carcinogenic compounds generated by these products.
It has been shown that never-smoking adolescents who try electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are at increased risk of subsequent conventional cigarette smoking. We evaluated associations between e-cigarette use and progression to established smoking among adolescents who had already tried cigarettes.METHODS:
Among participants (age 12–17 years) in the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health survey who had smoked a cigarette (≥1 puff) but not yet smoked 100 cigarettes (N = 1295), we examined 3 outcomes at 1-year follow-up as a function of baseline e-cigarette use: (1) having smoked ≥100 cigarettes (established smoking), (2) smoking during the past 30 days, and (3) both having smoked ≥100 cigarettes and past 30-day smoking (current established smoking). Survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for smoking risk factors.RESULTS:
Versus e-cigarette never use, having ever used e-cigarettes was positively associated with progression to established cigarette smoking (19.3% vs 9.7%), past 30-day smoking (38.8% vs 26.6%), and current established smoking (15.6% vs 7.1%). In adjusted models, e-cigarette ever use positively predicted current established smoking (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.04–3.12) but did not reach statistical significance (α = .05) for established smoking (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 0.99–2.49) and past 30-day smoking (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 0.99–1.76).CONCLUSIONS:
Among adolescent cigarette experimenters, using e-cigarettes was positively and independently associated with progression to current established smoking, suggesting that e-cigarettes do not divert from, and may encourage, cigarette smoking in this population.
Hormonal interventions are being increasingly used to treat young people with gender dysphoria, but their effects in this population have not been systematically reviewed before.OBJECTIVE:
To review evidence for the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa), gender-affirming hormones, antiandrogens, and progestins on transgender adolescents.DATA SOURCES:
We searched Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases from January 1, 1946, to June 10, 2017.STUDY SELECTION:
We selected primary studies in which researchers examined the hormonal treatment of transgender adolescents and assessed their psychosocial, cognitive, and/or physical effects.DATA EXTRACTION:
Two authors independently screened studies for inclusion and extracted data from eligible articles using a standardized recording form.RESULTS:
Thirteen studies met our inclusion criteria, in which researchers examined GnRHas (n = 9), estrogen (n = 3), testosterone (n = 5), antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate) (n = 1), and progestin (lynestrenol) (n = 1). Most treatments successfully achieved their intended physical effects, with GnRHas and cyproterone acetate suppressing sex hormones and estrogen or testosterone causing feminization or masculinization of secondary sex characteristics. GnRHa treatment was associated with improvement across multiple measures of psychological functioning but not gender dysphoria itself, whereas the psychosocial effects of gender-affirming hormones in transgender youth have not yet been adequately assessed.LIMITATIONS:
There are few studies in this field and they have all been observational.CONCLUSIONS:
Low-quality evidence suggests that hormonal treatments for transgender adolescents can achieve their intended physical effects, but evidence regarding their psychosocial and cognitive impact are generally lacking. Future research to address these knowledge gaps and improve understanding of the long-term effects of these treatments is required.
Electronic health record (EHR) use throughout the United States has advanced considerably, but functionality to support the optimal care of children has been slower to develop and deploy. A previous team of experts systematically identified gaps in EHR functionality during collaborative work from 2010 to 2013 that produced the Children’s EHR Format (Format), funded under the Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3. After that, a team of practitioners, software developers, health policy leaders, and other stakeholders examined the Format’s exhaustive list of 547 EHR functional requirements in 26 topic areas and found them to be valuable but in need of further refinement and prioritization. Work began in 2014 to develop a shortened high priority list of requirements and provide guidance to improve their use. Through a modified Delphi process that included key document review, selection criteria, multiple rounds of voting, and small group discussion, a multistakeholder work group identified and refined 47 items on the basis of earlier requirements to form the 2015 Children’s EHR Format Priority List and developed 16 recommended uses of the Format. The full report of the Format enhancement activities is publicly available. In this article, we aim to promote awareness of these high priority EHR functional requirements for the care of children, sharpen industry focus on adopting these changes, and align all stakeholders in prioritizing specific health information technology functionalities including those essential for well-child preventive care, medication management, immunization tracking, and growth data for specific pediatric subgroups.