Primary lymphedema in the pediatric population remains poorly diagnosed and misunderstood due to a lack of information on the causation and underlying anatomy of the lymphatic system. Consequently, therapeutic protocols for pediatric patients remain sparse and with little evidence to support them. In an effort to better understand the causation of primary pediatric lymphedema and to better inform clinical care, we report the use of near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging on the extremities of an alert, 21-month-old boy who presented with unilateral right arm and hand lymphedema at birth. The imaging results indicated an intact, apparently normal lymphatic anatomy with no obvious malformation, but with decreased lymphatic contractile function of the affected upper extremity relative to the contralateral and lower extremities. We hypothesized that the lack of contraction of the lymphatic vessels rather than an anatomic malformation was the source of the unilateral extremity swelling, and that compression and manual lymphatic drainage could be effective treatments.
John Scott Haldane recognized that the administration of supplemental oxygen required titration in the individual. Although he made this observation in adults, it is equally applicable to the preterm newborn. But how, in practice, can the oxygen requirements in the preterm newborn be determined to avoid the consequences of too little and too much oxygen? Unfortunately, the current generation of oxygen saturation trials in preterm newborns guides saturation thresholds rather than individual oxygen requirements. For this reason, we propose an alternate model for the description of oxygen sufficiency. This model considers the adequacy of oxygen delivery relative to simultaneous consumption. We describe how measuring oxygen extraction or the venous oxygen reservoir could define a physiologically based definition of adequate oxygen. This definition would provide a clinically useful reference value while making irrelevant the absolute values of both oxygen delivery and consumption. Additional trials to test adjunctive, noninvasive measurements of oxygen status in high-risk preterm newborns are needed to minimize the effects of both insufficient and excessive oxygen exposure.
Clinical decision rules have reduced use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate minor pediatric head injury in pediatric emergency departments (EDs). CT use remains high in community EDs, where the majority of children seek medical care. We sought to reduce the rate of CT scans used to evaluate pediatric head injury from 29% to 20% in a community ED.METHODS:
We evaluated a quality improvement (QI) project in a community ED aimed at decreasing the use of head CT scans in children by implementing a validated head trauma prediction rule for traumatic brain injury. A multidisciplinary team identified key drivers of CT use and implemented decision aids to improve the use of prediction rules. The team identified and mitigated barriers. An affiliated children’s hospital offered Maintenance of Certification credit and QI coaching to participants. We used statistical process control charts to evaluate the effect of the intervention on monthly CT scan rates and performed a Wald test of equivalence to compare preintervention and postintervention CT scan proportions.RESULTS:
The baseline period (February 2013–July 2014) included 695 patients with a CT scan rate of 29.2% (95% confidence interval, 25.8%–32.6%). The postintervention period (August 2014–October 2015) included 651 patients with a CT scan rate of 17.4% (95% confidence interval, 14.5%–20.2%, P < .01). Barriers included targeting providers with variable pediatric experience and parental imaging expectations.CONCLUSIONS:
We demonstrate that a Maintenance of Certification QI project sponsored by a children’s hospital can facilitate evidence-based pediatric care and decrease the rate of unnecessary CT use in a community setting.
Availability of "exotic" foods is steadily increasing. In this report, we describe the first case of anaphylaxis to crocodile meat. The patient was a 13-year-old boy with severe immunoglobulin E–mediated allergy to chicken meat. When tasting crocodile meat for the first time, he developed an anaphylactic reaction. Cross-reactivity between chicken and crocodile meat was suspected to have triggered this reaction. Basophil activation and immunoglobulin E testing confirmed the boy’s allergic reaction to crocodile meat proteins. Molecular analysis identified a crocodile α-parvalbumin, with extensive sequence homology to chicken α-parvalbumin, as the main cross-reactive allergen. We conclude that crocodile meat can be a potent food allergen and patients with allergy to chicken meat should be advised to avoid intake of meat from crocodile species. Both foods and people travel around the world and accessibility to exotic foods is steadily growing. As a result, novel allergic cross-reactivities are likely to become a challenge in the management of food allergy and, as our report illustrates, cross-reactivity has to be considered even between foods that might not intuitively be perceived as related.
Venipuncture is a leading cause of procedural pain for children. Jet injection of lidocaine (JIL; J-Tip) has been demonstrated to be effective in controlling intravenous (IV) placement–related pain and, due to its rapid onset, is particularly suited to emergency department (ED) use. Our objective was to increase JIL use with IV placements in our ED from 11% at baseline to 50% within 12 months.METHODS:
We initiated the project at our urban, tertiary pediatric ED in July 2014. We surveyed medical and nursing teams to identify barriers to JIL use. We initiated changes at monthly intervals: (1) order set changes, (2) online education, (3) hands-on workshops, (4) improved accessibility, (5) standing order policy revision, and (6) reminders. We collected biweekly data on IV placements for all ED patients, except level 1 (critical) triage patients. We used standard quality improvement methodology and statistical process control for statistical analysis.RESULTS:
JIL use with IV placement increased to 54% over 7 months and has remained >50% for >12 months. For all eligible IV placements (n = 12 791), 76.4% of those where JIL was used were successful on the first attempt compared with 75.8% without JIL (21degrees of freedom = 0.33, P = .56), with no significant difference in the success at IV placement.CONCLUSIONS:
We sustainably increased JIL use with IV placement. The use of JIL was not associated with a difference in first-attempt IV placement success rates. We are expanding the project to other parts of the institution.
Children with disabilities are at increased risk of child maltreatment; however, there is a gap in the evidence about whether all disabilities are at equal risk and whether risk factors vary according to the type of disability.METHODS:
A population-based record-linkage study of all children born in Western Australia between 1990 and 2010. Children with disabilities were identified by using population-based registers and risk of maltreatment determined by allegations reported to the Department for Child Protection and Family Support.RESULTS:
Although children with disabilities make up 10.4% of the population, they represent 25.9% of children with a maltreatment allegation and 29.0% of those with a substantiated allegation; however, increased risk of maltreatment was not consistent across all disability types. Children with intellectual disability, mental/behavioral problems, and conduct disorder continued to have increased risk of an allegation and substantiated allegation after adjusting for child, family, and neighborhood risk factors. In contrast, adjusting for these factors resulted in children with autism having a lower risk, and children with Down syndrome and birth defects/cerebral palsy having the same risk as children without disability.CONCLUSIONS:
The prevalence of disabilities in the child protection system suggests a need for awareness of the scope of issues faced by these children and the need for interagency collaboration to ensure children’s complex needs are met. Supports are needed for families with children with disabilities to assist in meeting the child’s health and developmental needs, but also to support the parents in managing the often more complex parenting environment.
There is mixed evidence from correlational studies that breastfeeding impacts children’s development. Propensity score matching with large samples can be an effective tool to remove potential bias from observed confounders in correlational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of breastfeeding on children’s cognitive and noncognitive development at 3 and 5 years of age.METHODS:
Participants included ~8000 families from the Growing Up in Ireland longitudinal infant cohort, who were identified from the Child Benefit Register and randomly selected to participate. Parent and teacher reports and standardized assessments were used to collect information on children’s problem behaviors, expressive vocabulary, and cognitive abilities at age 3 and 5 years. Breastfeeding information was collected via maternal report. Propensity score matching was used to compare the average treatment effects on those who were breastfed.RESULTS:
Before matching, breastfeeding was associated with better development on almost every outcome. After matching and adjustment for multiple testing, only 1 of the 13 outcomes remained statistically significant: children’s hyperactivity (difference score, –0.84; 95% confidence interval, –1.33 to –0.35) at age 3 years for children who were breastfed for at least 6 months. No statistically significant differences were observed postmatching on any outcome at age 5 years.CONCLUSIONS:
Although 1 positive benefit of breastfeeding was found by using propensity score matching, the effect size was modest in practical terms. No support was found for statistically significant gains at age 5 years, suggesting that the earlier observed benefit from breastfeeding may not be maintained once children enter school.
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus. Five children were identified, all of whom presented with fever-associated convulsive status epilepticus, developed severe brain swelling, and died. All had de novo SCN1A mutations. Fever of 40°C or greater was measured in all cases. Signs of brainstem dysfunction, indicating cerebral herniation, were first noted 3 to 5 days after initial presentation in 4 patients, though were apparent as early as 24 hours in 1 case. When MRI was performed early in a patient’s course, focal regions of cortical diffusion restriction were noted. Later MRI studies demonstrated diffuse cytotoxic edema, with severe cerebral herniation. Postmortem studies revealed diffuse brain edema and widespread neuronal damage. Laminar necrosis was seen in 1 case. Cerebral edema leading to fatal brain herniation is an important, previously unreported sequela of status epilepticus in children with DS. This potentially remediable complication may be a significant contributor to the early mortality of DS.
We present a case of recurrent bouts of irritability with arching, head extension, and lethargy in a previously healthy 10-month-old girl admitted to the PICU for acute onset of a movement disorder. The patient’s vital signs and physical examination were unremarkable but recurrent bouts of abnormal movements persisted for the first 10 hours of admission in the PICU. Possible diagnoses, such as meningitis, status epilepticus, space occupying lesions, and toxic ingestions, were ruled out because of negative cerebrospinal fluid analysis, normal EEG, and negative results of other ancillary tests. On the second day of admission, an abdominal radiograph was obtained because intussusception was considered a probable diagnosis due to recurrent episodes of arching and lethargy. The abdominal radiograph revealed the presence of a 15-mm radiopaque foreign body in the right lower quadrant corresponding to the anatomic location of the ileocecal valve. The patient made an uneventful recovery after she spontaneously passed a 1.5 cm by 1 cm rock (15 mm) in her stool on the third day of admission. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for unwitnessed ingestion of a foreign body in a previously healthy preschool child with sudden onset of a movement disorder.
Stillbirth and in-hospital mortality rates associated with very preterm births (VPT) vary widely across Europe. International comparisons are complicated by a lack of standardized data collection and differences in definitions, registration, and reporting. This study aims to determine what proportion of the variation in stillbirth and in-hospital VPT mortality rates persists after adjusting for population demographics, case-mix, and timing of death.METHODS:
Standardized data collection for a geographically defined prospective cohort of VPTs (22+0–31+6 weeks gestation) across 16 regions in Europe. Crude and adjusted stillbirth and in-hospital mortality rates for VPT infants were calculated by time of death by using multinomial logistic regression models.RESULTS:
The stillbirth and in-hospital mortality rate for VPTs was 27.7% (range, 19.9%–35.9% by region). Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics had little impact on the variation. The addition of infant characteristics reduced the variation of mortality rates by approximately one-fifth (4.8% to 3.9%). The SD for deaths <12 hours after birth was reduced by one-quarter, but did not change after risk adjustment for deaths ≥12 hours after birth.CONCLUSIONS:
In terms of the regional variation in overall VPT mortality, over four-fifths of the variation could not be accounted for by maternal, pregnancy, and infant characteristics. Investigation of the timing of death showed that these characteristics only accounted for a small proportion of the variation in VPT deaths. These findings suggest that there may be an inequity in the quality of care provision and treatment of VPT infants across Europe.
In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13.METHODS:
We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization.RESULTS:
During the study period, 57 733 blood cultures were collected in the population of children 3 to 36 months old. Implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine resulted in a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, decreasing from 74.5 to 10 to 3.5 per 100 000 children per year by the post-PCV13 period. As pneumococcal rates decreased, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus caused 77% of bacteremia. Seventy-six percent of all bacteremia in the post-PCV13 period occurred with a source.CONCLUSIONS:
In the United States, routine immunizations have made bacteremia in the previously healthy toddler a rare event. As the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia has decreased, E coli, Salmonella spp, and S aureus have increased in relative importance. New guidelines are needed to approach the previously healthy febrile toddler in the outpatient setting.
Empiric antibiotic therapy for presumed urinary tract infection (UTI) leads to unnecessary antibiotic exposure in many children whose urine culture results fail to confirm the diagnosis. The objective of this quality improvement study was to improve follow-up management of negative urine culture results in the off-campus urgent care network of Nationwide Children’s Hospital to reduce inappropriate antibiotic exposure in children.METHODS:
A multidisciplinary task force developed and implemented a protocol for routine nurse and clinician follow-up of urine culture results, discontinuation of unnecessary antibiotics, and documentation in the electronic medical record. Monthly antibiotic discontinuation rates were tracked in empirically treated patients with negative urine culture results from July 2013 through December 2015. Statistical process control methods were used to track improvement over time. Fourteen-day return visits for UTIs were monitored as a balancing measure.RESULTS:
During the study period, 910 patients received empiric antibiotic therapy for UTIs but had a negative urine culture result. The antibiotic discontinuation rate increased from 4% to 84%, avoiding 3429 (40%) of 8648 antibiotic days prescribed. Among patients with discontinued antibiotics, none was diagnosed with a UTI within 14 days of the initial urgent care encounter.CONCLUSIONS:
Implementation of a standard protocol for urine culture follow-up and discontinuation of unnecessary antibiotics was both effective and safe in a high-volume pediatric urgent care network. Urine culture follow-up management is an essential opportunity for improved antimicrobial stewardship in the outpatient setting that will affect many patients by avoiding a substantial number of antibiotic days.
Research regarding the protective effects of early physical activity on depression has yielded conflicting results.OBJECTIVE:
Our objective was to synthesize observational studies examining the association of physical activity in childhood and adolescence with depression.DATA SOURCES:
Studies (from 2005 to 2015) were identified by using a comprehensive search strategy.STUDY SELECTION:
The included studies measured physical activity in childhood or adolescence and examined its association with depression.DATA EXTRACTION:
Data were extracted by 2 independent coders. Estimates were examined by using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS:
Fifty independent samples (89 894 participants) were included, and the mean effect size was significant (r = –0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.19 to –0.10). Moderator analyses revealed stronger effect sizes in studies with cross-sectional versus longitudinal designs (k = 36, r = –0.17; 95% CI = –0.23 to –0.10 vs k = 14, r = –0.07; 95% CI = –0.10 to –0.04); using depression self-report versus interview (k = 46, r = –0.15; 95% CI = –0.20 to –0.10 vs k = 4, r = –0.05; 95% CI = –0.09 to –0.01); using validated versus nonvalidated physical activity measures (k = 29, r = –0.18; 95% CI = –0.26 to –0.09 vs k = 21, r = –0.08; 95% CI = –0.11 to –0.05); and using measures of frequency and intensity of physical activity versus intensity alone (k = 27, r = –0.17; 95% CI = –0.25 to –0.09 vs k = 7, r = –0.05; 95% CI = –0.09 to –0.01).LIMITATIONS:
Limitations included a lack of standardized measures of physical activity; use of self-report of depression in majority of studies; and a small number of longitudinal studies.CONCLUSIONS:
Physical activity is associated with decreased concurrent depressive symptoms; the association with future depressive symptoms is weak.
Published guidelines recommend amoxicillin for most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more commonly prescribed. We aimed to determine the patient and clinician characteristics associated with the prescription of amoxicillin versus macrolide or broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP.METHODS:
Retrospective cohort study in an outpatient pediatric primary care network from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. Patients prescribed amoxicillin, macrolides, or a broad-spectrum antibiotic (amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, cephalosporin, or fluoroquinolone) for CAP were included. Multivariable logistic regression models were implemented to identify predictors of antibiotic choice for CAP based on patient- and clinician-level characteristics, controlling for practice.RESULTS:
Of 10 414 children, 4239 (40.7%) received amoxicillin, 4430 (42.5%) received macrolides and 1745 (16.8%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics. The factors associated with an increased odds of receipt of macrolides compared with amoxicillin included patient age ≥5 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 6.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.53–6.91), previous antibiotic receipt (aOR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.56–2.04), and private insurance (aOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28–1.70). The predicted probability of a child being prescribed a macrolide ranged significantly between 0.22 and 0.83 across clinics. The nonclinical characteristics associated with an increased odds of receipt of broad-spectrum antibiotics compared with amoxicillin included suburban practice (aOR: 7.50; 95% CI: 4.16–13.55) and private insurance (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.18–1.71).CONCLUSIONS:
Antibiotic choice for CAP varied widely across practices. Factors unlikely related to the microbiologic etiology of CAP were significant drivers of antibiotic choice. Understanding drivers of off-guideline prescribing can inform targeted antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.
Most US studies of national trends in medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids have focused on adults. Given the limited understanding in these trends among adolescents, we examine national trends in the medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors between 1976 and 2015.METHODS:
The data used for the study come from the Monitoring the Future study of adolescents. Forty cohorts of nationally representative samples of high school seniors (modal age 18) were used to examine self-reported medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids.RESULTS:
Lifetime prevalence of medical use of prescription opioids peaked in both 1989 and 2002 and remained stable until a recent decline from 2013 through 2015. Lifetime nonmedical use of prescription opioids was less prevalent and highly correlated with medical use of prescription opioids over this 40-year period. Adolescents who reported both medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids were more likely to indicate medical use of prescription opioids before initiating nonmedical use.CONCLUSIONS:
Prescription opioid exposure is common among US adolescents. Long-term trends indicate that one-fourth of high school seniors self-reported medical or nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids has declined recently and remained highly correlated over the past 4 decades. Sociodemographic differences and risky patterns involving medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids should be taken into consideration in clinical practice to improve opioid analgesic prescribing and reduce adverse consequences associated with prescription opioid use among adolescents.
To examine yearly trends of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) diagnosis and treatment in very low birth weight infants.METHODS:
In this retrospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) between 2008 and 2014 across 134 California hospitals, we evaluated PDA diagnosis and treatment by year of birth. Infants were either inborn or transferred in within 2 days after delivery and had no congenital abnormalities. Intervention levels for treatment administered to achieve ductal closure were categorized as none, pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen), both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation, or ligation only. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for PDA diagnosis and treatment.RESULTS:
PDA was diagnosed in 42.8% (12 002/28 025) of infants, with a decrease in incidence from 49.2% of 4205 infants born in 2008 to 38.5% of 4001 infants born in 2014. Pharmacologic and/or surgical treatment was given to 30.5% of patients. Between 2008 and 2014, the annual rate of infants who received pharmacologic intervention (30.5% vs 15.7%) or both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation (6.9% vs 2.9%) decreased whereas infants who were not treated (60.5% vs 78.3%) or received primary ligation (2.2% vs 3.0%) increased.CONCLUSIONS:
There is an increasing trend toward not treating patients diagnosed with PDA compared with more intensive treatments: pharmacologic intervention or both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation. Possible directions for future study include the impact of these trends on hospital-based and long-term outcomes.
Whether 100% fruit juice consumption causes weight gain in children remains controversial.OBJECTIVE:
To determine the association between 100% fruit juice consumption and change in BMI or BMI z score in children.DATA SOURCES:
PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases.STUDY SELECTION:
Longitudinal studies examining the association of 100% fruit juice and change in BMI measures were included.DATA EXTRACTION:
Two independent reviewers extracted data using a predesigned data collection form.RESULTS:
Of the 4657 articles screened, 8 prospective cohort studies (n = 34 470 individual children) met the inclusion criteria. Controlling for total energy intake, 1 daily 6- to 8-oz serving increment of 100% fruit juice was associated with a 0.003 (95% CI: 0.001 to 0.004) unit increase in BMI z score over 1 year in children of all ages (0% increase in BMI percentile). In children ages 1 to 6 years, 1 serving increment was associated with a 0.087 (95% confidence interval: 0.008 to 0.167) unit increase in BMI z score (4% increase in BMI percentile). 100% fruit juice consumption was not associated with BMI z score increase in children ages 7 to 18 years.LIMITATIONS:
All observational studies; studies differed in exposure assessment and covariate adjustment.CONCLUSIONS:
Consumption of 100% fruit juice is associated with a small amount of weight gain in children ages 1 to 6 years that is not clinically significant, and is not associated with weight gain in children ages 7 to 18 years. More studies are needed in children ages 1 to 6 years.
The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of injuries associated with nursery products among young children treated in US emergency departments.METHODS:
Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were retrospectively analyzed for patients aged <3 years who sustained an injury associated with a nursery product from 1991 through 2011.RESULTS:
An estimated 1 391 844 (95% confidence interval, 1 169 489–1 614 199) nursery product–related injuries among children aged <3 years were treated in US emergency departments during the 21-year study period, averaging 56.29 injuries per 10 000 children. The annual injury rate decreased significantly by 33.9% from 1991 to 2003, followed by a significant increase of 23.7% from 2003 to 2011. The decrease was driven by a significant decline in baby walker/jumper/exerciser-related injuries; the increase was driven by a significant increase in concussions and closed head injuries. Nursery product–related injuries were most commonly associated with baby carriers (19.5%), cribs/mattresses (18.6%), strollers/carriages (16.5%), or baby walkers/jumpers/exercisers (16.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was a self-precipitated fall (80.0%), and the most frequently injured body region was the head or neck (47.1%).CONCLUSIONS:
Although successful injury prevention efforts with baby walkers led to a decline in nursery product–related injuries from 1991 to 2003, the number and rate of these injuries have been increasing since 2003. Greater efforts are warranted to prevent injuries associated with other nursery products, especially baby carriers, cribs, and strollers. Prevention of falls and concussions/closed head injuries associated with nursery products also deserves special attention.
Data are limited on the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use with those among marijuana users.METHODS:
Data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 (N = 15 624), were used to examine the association between self-reported type of marijuana use (ie, never use of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids, ever use of marijuana only, and ever use of synthetic cannabinoids) and self-report of 36 risk behaviors across 4 domains: substance use, injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health. Multivariable models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios.RESULTS:
Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids had a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in each of the behaviors in the substance use and sexual risk domains compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids were more likely than students who ever used marijuana only to have used marijuana before age 13 years, to have used marijuana ≥1 times during the past 30 days, and to have used marijuana ≥20 times during the past 30 days. Several injury/violence behaviors were more prevalent among students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids compared with students who ever used marijuana only.CONCLUSIONS:
Health professionals and school-based substance use prevention programs should include strategies focused on the prevention of both synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana.
Preterm birth increases the risk for mental disorders in adulthood, yet findings on self-reported or subclinical mental health problems are mixed.OBJECTIVE:
To study self-reported mental health problems among adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤1500 g) compared with term controls in an individual participant data meta-analysis.DATA SOURCES:
Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.STUDY SELECTION:
Studies that compared self-reported mental health problems using the Achenbach Young Adult Self Report or Adult Self Report between adults born preterm at VLBW (n = 747) and at term (n = 1512).DATA EXTRACTION:
We obtained individual participant data from 6 study cohorts and compared preterm and control groups by mixed random coefficient linear and Tobit regression.RESULTS:
Adults born preterm reported more internalizing (pooled β = .06; 95% confidence interval .01 to .11) and avoidant personality problems (.11; .05 to .17), and less externalizing (–.10; –.15 to –.06), rule breaking (–.10; –.15 to –.05), intrusive behavior (–.14; –.19 to –.09), and antisocial personality problems (–.09; –.14 to –.04) than controls. Group differences did not systematically vary by sex, intrauterine growth pattern, neurosensory impairments, or study cohort.LIMITATIONS:
Exclusively self-reported data are not confirmed by alternative data sources.CONCLUSIONS:
Self-reports of adults born preterm at VLBW reveal a heightened risk for internalizing problems and socially avoidant personality traits together with a lowered risk for externalizing problem types. Our findings support the view that preterm birth constitutes an early vulnerability factor with long-term consequences on the individual into adulthood.