To identify the epidemiological characteristics and transmission patterns of pediatric patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China.METHODS:
Nationwide case series of 2135 pediatric patients with COVID-19 reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from January 16, 2020, to February 8, 2020, were included. The epidemic curves were constructed by key dates of disease onset and case diagnosis. Onset-to-diagnosis curves were constructed by fitting a log-normal distribution to data on both onset and diagnosis dates.RESULTS:
There were 728 (34.1%) laboratory-confirmed cases and 1407 (65.9%) suspected cases. The median age of all patients was 7 years (interquartile range: 2–13 years), and 1208 case patients (56.6%) were boys. More than 90% of all patients had asymptomatic, mild, or moderate cases. The median time from illness onset to diagnoses was 2 days (range: 0–42 days). There was a rapid increase of disease at the early stage of the epidemic, and then there was a gradual and steady decrease. The disease rapidly spread from Hubei province to surrounding provinces over time. More children were infected in Hubei province than any other province.CONCLUSIONS:
Children of all ages appeared susceptible to COVID-19, and there was no significant sex difference. Although clinical manifestations of children’s COVID-19 cases were generally less severe than those of adult patients, young children, particularly infants, were vulnerable to infection. The distribution of children’s COVID-19 cases varied with time and space, and most of the cases were concentrated in Hubei province and surrounding areas. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence of human-to-human transmission.
Achondroplasia is the most common short-stature skeletal dysplasia, additionally marked by rhizomelia, macrocephaly, midface hypoplasia, and normal cognition. Potential medical complications associated with achondroplasia include lower extremity long bone bowing, middle-ear dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea, and, more rarely, cervicomedullary compression, hydrocephalus, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and central sleep apnea. This is the second revision to the original 1995 health supervision guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics for caring for patients with achondroplasia. Although many of the previously published recommendations remain appropriate for contemporary medical care, this document highlights interval advancements in the clinical methods available to monitor for complications associated with achondroplasia. This document is intended to provide guidance for health care providers to help identify individual patients at high risk of developing serious sequelae and to enable intervention before complications develop.
Resistance training is becoming more important as an integral part of comprehensive sport training regimens, school physical education classes, and after-school fitness programs. The increasing number of youth who are involved in sport activities, coupled with the health problems of inactivity and being overweight, have resulted in increased interest in resistance training. Secular declines in measures of muscular fitness in modern-day youth highlight the need for participation in youth resistance training for nonathletes as well as athletes. Parents often ask pediatricians to offer advice regarding the safety, benefits, and implementation of an effective resistance-training program. This report is a revision of the 2008 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement and reviews current information and research on the benefits and risks of resistance training for children and adolescents.