Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts that forms in dilated cysts or cavities. We present, for the first time in literature, a toddler with isolated milk of calcium and treated with a conservative approach. A boy with a history of one urinary tract infection and recurrent fever without vesicoureteral reflux showed at the age of 14 months a left obstructive staghorn stone. Because of absent function of the left kidney at mercapto acetyl tri glycine scintigraphy, a JJ stent was positioned with a leak of whitish material immediately after the stent positioning. Renal scintigraphy performed 1 month later revealed a partial resumption in renal function (18%). When he was 18 months old, the child suffered episodes of acute pain with inconsolable crying, unresponsive to paracetamol administration. Ultrasound assessment revealed left pelvic dilation (anterior-posterior diameter of 18 mm), suspended echogenic debris in the bladder, and dilated left distal ureter with particulate matter. These episodes of acute pain were followed by expulsion of numerous soft formations and emission of greenish urine. Both urine culture at the admission and culture on the greenish urines were sterile. After the expulsion of the soft formations, pain episodes stopped. The diagnosis of milk of calcium stone was made. With this case, we highlight a condition that can be easily diagnosed (if known) because the morphology of the expelled material is pathognomonic. Diagnosing it could avoid unnecessary treatments (ie, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy) and support a conservative approach (ie, stent positioning).
Epstein-Barr virus–associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a common type of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) that exhibits high rates of morbidity and fatalities. Multiorgan failure caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–induced hypercytokinemia is one of the main reasons for early deaths. Blood purification techniques have been successfully applied in previously treated hypercytokinemia. However, there were insufficient studies to support the combination of plasma exchange (PE) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in treating patients with severe EBV-HLH. In this article, we have summarized the effects of early incorporation of PE and CRRT, together with HLH-2004 chemoimmunotherapy, in 8 pediatric patients with severe EBV-HLH. Early use of PE and CRRT appeared to be well tolerated, and no serious side effects and early deaths were observed. After PE and CRRT procedures, cytokine levels were reduced to normal values, except for soluble interleukin 2 receptor, and significant reductions in EBV DNA, serum ferritin, aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, total bile acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and body temperature values and increases in the neutrophil count in addition to hemoglobin, albumin, and cholinesterase values were observed. Furthermore, through continuous HLH-2004 treatment regimens, lower limits of detection were exhibited for EBV DNA levels, and all other observational indicator levels were restored to normal. Finally, 7 patients achieved and maintained complete remission for 15 to 24 months, culminating in August 2019. Therefore, it is our suggestion that early incorporation of PE and CRRT with chemoimmunotherapy might be a safe and effective treatment for patients with severe EBV-HLH.
The use of cannabidiol products in pediatric patients is becoming more frequent because of the increased ease of accessibility. This case report illustrates the potential for cannabidiol to interact with stable medication regimens. A 13-year-old girl with metastatic cancer and chronic pain presented with increased sleepiness and fatigue. She had been started on 7.5 mg of methadone by mouth twice daily 4 months earlier. Unbeknownst to her physicians, her parents had commenced her on cannabidiol and subsequently increased the dose leading up to her presentation, thinking it would result in tumor shrinkage. The initial serum methadone level was 271 ng/mL, which decreased to 125 ng/mL 14 days after discontinuing cannabidiol. The reduced serum methadone level coincided with improved sleepiness and fatigue. Cannabidiol inhibits CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, both of which are involved in the metabolism of methadone. Pediatricians should be aware of this potential interaction and inquire if their patients are receiving cannabidiol.
A 15-year-old girl is scheduled to undergo an upper lobectomy to debulk metastatic Ewing sarcoma. The anesthesiologist recommended placement of a thoracic epidural catheter to provide postoperative analgesia. The patient did not want a needle to be placed near her spine. She was terrified that the procedure would be painful and that it might paralyze her. Although the anesthesiologist reassured her that sedation and local anesthesia would make the procedure comfortable, she remained vehemently opposed to the epidural procedure. The parents spoke privately to the anesthesiologist and asked for placement of the epidural after she was asleep. They firmly believed that this would provide optimal postoperative analgesia and thus would be in her best interest. Experts discuss the pros and cons of siding with the patient or parents.
To characterize the clinical manifestations, outcomes, and complications of hijab pin ingestion in adolescents and to identify risk factors for a need for intervention.METHODS:
A retrospective review of patients <25 years of age who presented to our emergency department because of hijab pin ingestion between 2007 and 2018. Comparison was performed between impaled and nonimpaled pins.RESULTS:
We reviewed 1558 foreign-body ingestion cases. Of these, 208 (13.3%) patients presented because of hijab pin ingestion, with a total of 225 ingested pins. The mean patient age was 14.7 ± 4.1 years, and 88% of patients were girls. Time from ingestion to presentation was 24 ± 49.5 hours. Most pins were located in the stomach (46.6%), and 18.6% of all pins were impaled. Location in the stomach (odds ratio = 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 1.9–9.2]; P < .001) and abdominal tenderness on examination (odds ratio = 2.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.3–5.6]; P = .007) were strong independent risk factors for an impaled pin. Time to intervention was 22.9 hours, and 41 endoscopies were performed. One patient required laparoscopic surgery. No complications were observed.CONCLUSIONS:
The hijab pin is an increasingly encountered foreign body in pediatric practice. Its specific clinical features distinguish it from other sharp objects. A delayed interventional approach in selected patients does not carry a higher risk of complications and results in significantly fewer interventions compared to existing guidelines. These findings will help guide pediatric specialists in this prevalent clinical scenario. Management recommendations are proposed.
Parenting in the NICU is an intense journey. Parents struggle to build intimacy with their child amid complex emotions and medical uncertainties. They need to rapidly adapt their vision of parenthood to the realities of intensive care. The psychological impact of this journey can have important effects on their psychological health. For parents of sick older children, "good parent" beliefs have been shown to foster positive growth. This concept is also essential for parents of infants in the NICU, although their path is complex.
We write as clinicians who were also families in the NICU. We suggest parents need to hear and internalize 3 important messages that overlap but are each important: you are a parent, you are not a bad parent, and you are a good parent. We offer practical suggestions to NICU clinicians that we believe will help NICU parents cope while their infant is in the NICU and afterward.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its infant vitamin D intake guidelines in 2008. We aimed to examine previously unexplored trends in meeting vitamin D intake guidelines among US infants since 2009 and whether there were differences across demographic subgroups.METHODS:
We analyzed dietary recall data for infants 0 to 11 months in the 2009–2016 NHANES. We estimated the percentage meeting 2008 AAP vitamin D guidelines, defined as consuming ≥1 L of infant formula and/or receiving a vitamin D supplement of ≥400 IU. We used Poisson regressions to assess trends over time and differences across demographic subgroups.RESULTS:
Overall, 27.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.3%–29.8%) of US infants in 2009–2016 met vitamin D intake guidelines, with nonbreastfeeding infants (31.1% [95% CI: 27.6%–34.5%]) more likely to meet guidelines than breastfeeding infants (20.5% [95% CI: 15.4%–25.5%]; P < .01). From 2009–2010 to 2015–2016, overall and for both breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding infants, there were no significant changes over time in the percentage of infants who met the guidelines (P > .05). Among breastfeeding infants, those with a family income ≥400% of the federal poverty level, with a college graduate head of household, and with private insurance were more likely to meet guidelines.CONCLUSIONS:
Among US infants, we observed no increase in meeting AAP vitamin D intake guidelines since 2009. Less than 40% of infants met guidelines in nearly all demographic subgroups. These findings suggest renewed consideration of how to best meet vitamin D intake guidelines.
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) continue to be the leading cause of death in youth 16 to 24 years old in the United States. Distracted driving has been shown to increase the risk of MVCs in all drivers, particularly teenagers. We aimed to determine the association between fatal MVC rates involving 16- to 19-year-old drivers and state distracted driving laws.METHODS:
We conducted a retrospective time series analysis of fatal MVCs in the United States involving drivers and passengers 16 to 19 years old from 2007 to 2017 using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Multivariable negative binomial regression analysis was performed to compare MVC rates across states on the basis of different types and strengths of distracted driving laws.RESULTS:
There were 38 215 drivers 16 to 19 years old involved in fatal MVCs from 2007 to 2017. Incidence of fatal MVCs was highest for 19-year-old drivers (27.2 out of 100 000 19-year-old persons) and lowest for 16-year-olds (10.7 out of 100 000). States with primarily enforced texting bans had lower MVC fatality rates overall involving 16- to 19-year-old drivers (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.76). Texting bans and handheld bans for all drivers were associated with decreased MVC fatalities in all age groups.CONCLUSIONS:
In the United States, primarily enforced distracted driving laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatal MVCs involving 16- to 19-year-old drivers. Bans on all handheld device use and texting bans for all drivers are associated with the greatest decrease in fatal MVCs. Adoption of universal handheld cellphone bans in all states may reduce the incidence of distracted driving and decrease MVC fatalities.
Host biomarkers predict disease severity in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We evaluated the association of the white blood cell (WBC) count, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin with the development of severe outcomes in children with CAP.METHODS:
We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years of age with CAP in the emergency department. The primary outcome was disease severity: mild (discharged from the hospital), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with receipt of intravenous fluids, supplemental oxygen, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, intensive care, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP.RESULTS:
Of 477 children, there were no statistical differences in the median WBC count, ANC, CRP, or procalcitonin across severity categories. No biomarker had adequate discriminatory ability between severe and nonsevere disease (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.53–0.6 for suspected CAP and 0.59–0.64 for radiographic CAP). In analyses adjusted for age, antibiotic use, fever duration, and viral pathogen detection, CRP was associated with moderate-severe disease (odds ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.25). CRP and procalcitonin revealed good discrimination of children with empyema requiring chest drainage (AUC: 0.83) and sepsis with vasoactive infusions (CRP AUC: 0.74; procalcitonin AUC: 0.78), although prevalence of these outcomes was low.CONCLUSIONS:
WBC count, ANC, CRP, and procalcitonin are generally not useful to discriminate nonsevere from severe disease in children with CAP, although CRP and procalcitonin may have some utility in predicting the most severe outcomes.
A previously healthy 15-year-old boy presented with 3 months of progressive psychosis, insomnia, back and groin pain, and hyperhidrosis. On examination, the patient was disheveled, agitated, and soaked with sweat, with systolic blood pressure in the 160s and heart rate in the 130s. Aside from occasional auditory and visual hallucinations, his neurologic examination was normal. The patient was admitted for an extensive workup, including MRI of the brain and spine and lumbar puncture, which were normal. Through collaboration with various pediatric specialists, including psychiatry and neurology, a rare diagnosis was ultimately unveiled.
Parents of ill children have willingly identified their personal beliefs about what they should do or focus on to fulfill their own internal definition of being a good parent for their child. This observation has led to the development of the good-parent beliefs concept over the past decade. A growing qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods research base has explored the ways that good-parent beliefs guide family decision-making and influence family relationships. Parents have expressed comfort in speaking about their good-parent beliefs. Whether parents achieve their unique good-parent beliefs definition affects their sense of whether they did a good job in their role of parenting their ill child. In this state-of-the-art article, we offer an overview of the good-parent beliefs concept over the past decade, addressing what is currently known and gaps in what we know, and explore how clinicians may incorporate discussions about the good-parent beliefs into clinical practice.
As the technical ability for genetic diagnosis continues to improve, an increasing number of diagnoses are made in infancy or as early as the neonatal period. Many of these diagnoses are known to be associated with developmental delay and intellectual disability, features that would not be clinically detectable at the time of diagnosis. Others may be associated with cognitive impairment, but the incidence and severity are yet to be fully described. These neonates and infants with genetic diagnoses therefore represent an emerging group of patients who are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. Although there are well-established developmental supports for high-risk infants, particularly preterm infants, after discharge from the NICU, programs specifically for infants with genetic diagnoses are rare. And although previous research has demonstrated the positive effect of early developmental interventions on outcomes among preterm infants, the impact of such supports for infants with genetic disorders who may be born term, remains to be understood. We therefore review the literature regarding existing developmental assessment and intervention approaches for children with genetic disorders, evaluating these in the context of current developmental supports postdischarge for preterm infants. Further research into the role of developmental support programs for early assessment and intervention in high-risk neonates diagnosed with rare genetic disorders is needed.
To determine if in utero selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or selective serotonin norepinephrine inhibitor (SNRI) exposure is associated with developmental vulnerability in kindergarten among children whose mothers were diagnosed with prenatal mood or anxiety disorder.METHODS:
Linkable administrative data were used to create a population-based cohort of 266 479 mother-child dyads of children born in Manitoba, Canada, between 1996 and 2014, with follow-up through 2015. The sample was restricted to mothers who had a mood or anxiety disorder diagnosis between 90 days before conception (N = 13 818). Exposed women had ≥2 SSRI or SNRI dispensations during pregnancy (n = 2055); unexposed mothers did not have a dispensation of an SSRI or SNRI during pregnancy (n = 10 017). The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was used to assess developmental health in kindergarten children. The EDI is a 104-component kindergarten teacher-administered questionnaire, encompassing 5 developmental domains.RESULTS:
Of the 3048 children included in the study who met inclusion criteria and had an EDI, 21.43% of children in the exposed group were assessed as vulnerable on 2 or more domains versus 16.16% of children in the unexposed group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.43; 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.90). Children in the exposed group also had a significant risk of being vulnerable in language and/or cognition (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40; 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.90).CONCLUSIONS:
Exposure to SSRIs or SNRIs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of developmental vulnerability and an increased risk of deficits in language and/or cognition. Replication of results is necessary before clinical implications can be reached.
There is a dearth of evidence regarding the association of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with certain product characteristics and adolescent and young adult risk of unhealthy tobacco use patterns (eg, frequency of combustible cigarette smoking), which is needed to inform the regulation of e-cigarettes.METHODS:
Data were collected via an online survey of participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study from 2015 to 2016 (baseline) and 2016 to 2017 (follow-up) (N = 1312). We evaluated the association of binary categories of 3 nonmutually exclusive characteristics of the e-cigarette used most frequently with the number of cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days at 1-year follow-up. Product characteristics included device (vape pen and/or modifiable electronic cigarette [mod]), use of nicotine in electronic liquid (e-liquid; yes or no), and use for dripping (directly dripping e-liquid onto the device; yes or no).RESULTS:
Relative to never e-cigarette users, past-30-day e-cigarette use was associated with greater frequency of past-30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among baseline past-30-day e-cigarette users, participants who used mods (versus vape pens) smoked >6 times as many cigarettes at follow-up (mean: 20.8 vs 1.3 cigarettes; rate ratio = 6.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.64–24.5) after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline frequency of cigarette smoking, and number of days of e-cigarette use. After adjustment for device, neither nicotine e-liquid nor dripping were associated with frequency of cigarette smoking.CONCLUSIONS:
Baseline mod users (versus vape pen users) smoked more cigarettes in the past 30 days at follow-up. Regulation of e-cigarette device type warrants consideration as a strategy to reduce cigarette smoking among adolescents and young adults who vape.
We describe an atypical pediatric case of immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV), also referred to as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, in which formation of spontaneous hematoma of the paraspinal muscles developed. Spontaneous or unprovoked hematomas rarely occur in IgAV. These manifestations have not been described specifically in the pediatric literature as coinciding with IgAV. These findings are alarming for nonaccidental trauma, particularly in a patient without underlying blood dyscrasia. Our objective for this report is to highlight the possible association of muscular hematoma formation with IgAV and to help providers consider this association when trauma and hemophilia has been ruled out.
Causal analysis is a core function of safety programs. Although established protocols exist for conducting root cause analysis for serious safety events, there is limited guidance for apparent cause analysis (ACA) in health care. At our institution, through a novel facilitated ACA approach, we aim to improve safety culture and provide a clear approach to address precursor safety events and near-miss safety events. We define facilitated ACA as limited investigation (scope and duration) of a safety event that resulted in little to no harm. These investigations require fewer resources and focus on preventive strategies. Our facilitated ACA model, with an operational algorithm and structured process, was developed and implemented at our tertiary-care, freestanding, urban pediatric hospital in 2018. Sixty-four ACAs were completed, and 83% were identified with the algorithm. Process measures, including time from event reporting to ACA launch (median 3 days; interquartile range 2–6 days), are tracked. Patient safety consultants averaged 5 hours to complete a facilitated ACA. A median of 3 disciplines or departments participated in each facilitated ACA. Through an iterative process, we implemented a structured process for facilitated ACA, and the model’s strength includes (1) right event, (2) right team, (3) right analysis, and (4) right action plans. This novel facilitated ACA model may support organizational cause analysis and improve safety culture with higher-reliability processes.
Standing orders are an effective way to increase vaccination rates, yet little is known about how pediatricians use this strategy for childhood immunizations. We assessed current use of, barriers to using, and factors associated with use of standing orders for vaccination among pediatricians.METHODS:
Internet and mail survey from June 2017 to September 2017 among a nationally representative sample of pediatricians. In the principal component analysis of barrier items, we identified 2 factors: physician responsibility and concerns about office processes. A multivariable analysis that included barrier scales and physician and/or practice characteristics was used to identify factors associated with use of standing orders.RESULTS:
The response rate was 79% (372 of 471); 59% of respondents reported using standing orders. The most commonly identified barriers among nonusers were concern that patients may mistakenly receive the wrong vaccine (68%), concern that patients prefer to speak with the physician about a vaccine before receiving it (62%), and belief that it is important for the physician to be the person who recommends a vaccine to patients (57%). These 3 items also made up the physician responsibility barrier factor. Respondents with higher physician responsibility scores were less likely to use standing orders (risk ratio: 0.59 [95% confidence interval: 0.53–0.66] per point increase). System-level decision-making about vaccines, suburban or rural location, and lower concerns about office processes scores were each associated with use of standing orders in the bivariate, but not the multivariable, analysis.CONCLUSIONS:
Among pediatricians, use of standing orders for vaccination is far from universal. Interventions to increase use of standing orders should address physicians’ attitudinal barriers as well as organizational factors.