Abusive head trauma (AHT) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, especially in young infants. In the past decade, advancements in research have refined medical understanding of the epidemiological, clinical, biomechanical, and pathologic factors comprising the diagnosis, thereby enhancing clinical detection of a challenging diagnostic entity. Failure to recognize AHT and respond appropriately at any step in the process, from medical diagnosis to child protection and legal decision-making, can place children at risk. The American Academy of Pediatrics revises the 2009 policy statement on AHT to incorporate the growing body of knowledge on the topic. Although this statement incorporates some of that growing body of knowledge, it is not a comprehensive exposition of the science. This statement aims to provide pediatric practitioners with general guidance on a complex subject. The Academy recommends that pediatric practitioners remain vigilant for the signs and symptoms of AHT, conduct thorough medical evaluations, consult with pediatric medical subspecialists when necessary, and embrace the challenges and need for strong advocacy on the subject.
It is crucial that all children are provided with high-quality and safe health care. Pediatric inpatient needs are unique in regard to policies, equipment, facilities, and personnel. The intent of this clinical report is to provide recommendations for the resources necessary to provide high-quality and safe pediatric inpatient medical care.
To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with actual recent practice and near-future intention for infant sleep location in a national sample.METHODS:
There were 3260 mothers from 32 US hospitals who responded to a survey at infant age 2 to 6 months regarding care practices, including usual and all infant sleep locations in the previous 2 weeks and intended location for the next 2 weeks. Mothers were categorized as (1) having practiced and/or intending to practice exclusive room-sharing without bed-sharing, (2) having practiced anything other than exclusive room-sharing but intending to practice exclusive room-sharing, (3) intending to have the infant sleep in another room; and (4) intending to practice bed-sharing all night or part of the night. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression examined associations between sleep-location category, demographics, feeding method, doctor advice, and theory of planned behavior domains (attitudes, social norms, and perceived control).RESULTS:
Fewer than half (45.4%) of the mothers practiced and also intended to practice room-sharing without bed-sharing, and 24.2% intended to practice some bed-sharing. Factors associated with intended bed-sharing included African American race and exclusive breastfeeding; however, the highest likelihood of bed-sharing intent was associated with perceived social norms favoring bed-sharing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.14–8.22) and positive attitudes toward bed-sharing (aOR 190.1; 95% CI 62.4–579.0). Women with a doctor’s advice to room-share without bed-sharing intended to practice bed-sharing less (aOR 0.56; 95% CI 0.36–0.85).CONCLUSIONS:
Sleep-location practices do not always align with the recommendation to room-share without bed-sharing, and intention does not always correspond with previous practice. Attitudes, perceived social norms, and doctor advice are factors that are amenable to change and should be considered in educational interventions.
Investigate the relationship between maternal alcohol-use disorder and multiple biological and social child outcomes, including birth outcomes, child protection, justice contact, and academic outcomes for both Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.METHODS:
Women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1983–2007) and their offspring were in scope. The exposed cohort were mothers with an alcohol-related diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) recorded in an administrative data set and their offspring (non-Indigenous: n = 13 969; Indigenous: n = 9635). The exposed cohort was frequency matched with mothers with no record of an alcohol-related diagnosis and their offspring (comparison cohort; non-Indigenous: n = 40 302; Indigenous: n = 20 533).RESULTS:
Over half of exposed non-Indigenous children (55%) and 84% of exposed Indigenous children experienced ≥1 negative outcome. The likelihood of any negative outcome was significantly higher for the exposed than the comparison cohort (non-Indigenous: odds ratio [OR] = 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.56–2.78]; Indigenous: OR = 2.67 [95% CI = 2.50–2.85]). The odds were greatest for children whose mothers received a diagnosis during pregnancy (non-Indigenous: OR = 4.65 [95% CI = 3.87–5.59]; Indigenous: OR = 5.18 [95% CI = 4.10–6.55]); however, numbers were small.CONCLUSIONS:
The effects of maternal alcohol-use disorder are experienced by the majority of exposed children rather than a vulnerable subgroup of this population. These findings highlight the need for universal prevention strategies to reduce harmful alcohol use and targeted interventions to support at-risk women and children.
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs) are a diverse group of intestinal diseases involving the infiltration of eosinophils into the bowel wall. EGID can present with a variety of clinical conditions, which are largely dependent on the location of eosinophils in the intestinal wall. We describe the first reported pediatric cases of EGID presenting with symptomatic partial bowel obstruction from intestinal masses due to isolated focal mural involvement. Both patients subsequently responded favorably to therapy with exclusive elemental nutrition in the first case and exclusive elemental nutrition with steroids in the second case. These cases reveal the wide-ranging clinical manifestations of EGID, expand on the differential diagnosis of focal intestinal masses, and provide guidance on the evaluation of ambiguous cases.
Medical decision-making in children is not a static process. In pediatrics, parents and health professionals actively participate in clinical decision-making. They always consider what is in the child’s best interest and sometimes weigh that against other considerations. As children get older, the level of participation in this process may change according to their own cognitive development and maturity level. In this article, we present a case of an adolescent with a life-limiting condition at the end of life. He wants to participate in his health management and speak for himself. He does not always prefer interventions that his parents think are best. Health care practitioners must include mature minors in the decision-making process and be willing to listen to their voices.
Sexual minority adolescents face mental health disparities relative to heterosexual adolescents. We evaluated temporal changes in US adolescent reported sexual orientation and suicide attempts by sexual orientation.METHODS:
We used Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance data from 6 states that collected data on sexual orientation identity and 4 states that collected data on sex of sexual contacts continuously between 2009 and 2017. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression models to evaluate changes in reported sexual orientation identity, sex of consensual sexual contacts, and suicide attempts over time and calculated marginal effects (MEs).RESULTS:
The proportion of adolescents reporting minority sexual orientation identity nearly doubled, from 7.3% in 2009 to 14.3% in 2017 (ME: 0.8 percentage points [pp] per year; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6 to 0.9 pp). The proportion of adolescents reporting any same-sex sexual contact increased by 70%, from 7.7% in 2009 to 13.1% in 2017 (ME: 0.6 pp per year; 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8 pp). Although suicide attempts declined among students identifying as sexual minorities (ME: –0.8 pp per year; 95% CI: –1.4 to –0.2 pp), these students remained >3 times more likely to attempt suicide relative to heterosexual students in 2017. Sexual minority adolescents accounted for an increasing proportion of all adolescent suicide attempts.CONCLUSIONS:
The proportion of adolescents reporting sexual minority identity and same-sex sexual contacts increased between 2009 and 2017. Disparities in suicide attempts persist. Developing and implementing approaches to reducing sexual minority youth suicide is critically important.
Children with asthma are at increased risk of complications from influenza; hospitalization represents an important opportunity for vaccination. We aimed to increase the influenza vaccination rate among eligible hospitalized patients with asthma on the pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) service from 13% to 80% over a 4-year period.METHODS:
Serial Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were implemented to improve influenza vaccination rates among children admitted with status asthmaticus and included modifications to the electronic health record (EHR) and provider and family education. Success of the initial PHM pilot led to the development of a hospital-wide vaccination tracking tool and an institutional, nurse-driven vaccine protocol by a multidisciplinary team. Our primary outcome metric was the inpatient influenza vaccination rate among PHM patients admitted with status asthmaticus. Process measures included documentation of influenza vaccination status and use of the EHR asthma order set and a history and physical template. The balance measure was adverse vaccine reaction within 24 hours. Data analysis was performed by using statistical process control charts.RESULTS:
The inpatient influenza vaccination rate increased from 13% to 57% over 4 years; special cause variation was achieved. Overall, 50% of eligible patients were vaccinated during asthma hospitalization in the postintervention period. Documentation of influenza vaccination status significantly increased from 51% to 96%, and asthma history and physical and order set use also improved. No adverse vaccine reactions were documented.CONCLUSIONS:
A bundle of interventions, including EHR modifications, provider and family education, hospital-wide tracking, and a nurse-driven vaccine protocol, increased influenza vaccination rates among eligible children hospitalized with status asthmaticus.
Administering inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine together has been associated with increased risk for febrile seizure after vaccination. We assessed the effect of administering IIV at a separate visit from PCV13 and DTaP on postvaccination fever.METHODS:
In 2017–2018, children aged 12 to 16 months were randomly assigned to receive study vaccines simultaneously or sequentially. They had 2 study visits 2 weeks apart; nonstudy vaccines were permitted at visit 1. The simultaneous group received PCV13, DTaP, and quadrivalent IIV (IIV4) at visit 1 and no vaccines at visit 2. The sequential group received PCV13 and DTaP at visit 1 and IIV4 at visit 2. Participants were monitored for fever (≥38°C) and antipyretic use during the 8 days after visits.RESULTS:
There were 110 children randomly assigned to the simultaneous group and 111 children to the sequential group; 90% received ≥1 nonstudy vaccine at visit 1. Similar proportions of children experienced fever on days 1 to 2 after visits 1 and 2 combined (simultaneous [8.1%] versus sequential [9.3%]; adjusted relative risk = 0.87 [95% confidence interval 0.36–2.10]). During days 1 to 2 after visit 1, more children in the simultaneous group received antipyretics (37.4% vs 22.4%; P = .020).CONCLUSIONS:
In our study, delaying IIV4 administration by 2 weeks in children receiving DTaP and PCV13 did not reduce fever occurrence after vaccination. Reevaluating this strategy to prevent fever using an IIV4 with a different composition in a future influenza season may be considered.
Since the discovery of propranolol in the treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH), there has been emergent investigation of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling in IH and the mechanisms of action for which β-AR blockers regulate hemangioma cell proliferation. However, β-AR agonists and antagonists are known to act antithetically via the same intracellular β-AR–driven proangiogenic pathways. We present the case of a patient with involuted IH treated with propranolol that showed a full and rapid regrowth during the intravenous administration of salbutamol, a selective β2-adrenergic agonist, for an episode of severe obstructive bronchitis. This observation brings forward the clinical implication of β-signaling effects in IH and raises awareness of the potential proliferative response of IH to β-AR agonists such as salbutamol.
Maternal drinking is associated with child emotional and behavior problems. There is, however, a lack of studies that properly account for confounding. Our objective was to estimate the association between at-risk drinking in mothers of young children and child emotional and behavior problems, taking into account the passive transmission of familial risk.METHODS:
This population-based sample consists of 34 039 children nested within 21 911 nuclear families and 18 158 extended families from the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study. Participants were recruited between 1999 and 2009 during routine ultrasound examinations. Data were collected during the 17th and 30th gestational week and when the children were 1.5, 3, and 5 years old. We applied a multilevel structural equation model that accounted for unobserved familial risks.RESULTS:
Children of mothers with at-risk drinking had a higher likelihood of behavior problems (β = 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.01 to 4.05) than children of mothers with low alcohol consumption. This association was reduced after adjusting for factors in the extended family (β = 1.93; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.71) and the nuclear family (β = 1.20; 95% CI 0.39 to 2.01). Maternal at-risk drinking had a smaller association with child emotional problems (β = 1.80; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.34). This association was reduced after adjusting for factors in the extended family (β = 0.67; 95% CI –0.12 to 1.46) and the nuclear family (β = 0.58; 95% CI –0.31 to 1.48).CONCLUSIONS:
The results suggest an association between maternal at-risk drinking and child behavior problems. A reduction in maternal drinking may improve outcomes for children with such symptoms.