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In the United States in 2019, there was an outbreak of electronic cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI). The manifestations of EVALI in adolescents are not well characterized. We describe the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of EVALI in adolescents hospitalized at a tertiary care, university-affiliated children’s hospital.METHODS:
A multidisciplinary committee developed an EVALI algorithm on the basis of guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients diagnosed with EVALI. Descriptive analyses included sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging results, pulmonary function testing, oxygen requirements, and clinic follow-up.RESULTS:
Thirteen hospitalized adolescents were diagnosed with confirmed or probable EVALI. The majority were female (54%) with a mean age of 15.9 years. Sixty-nine percent of patients presented with respiratory symptoms, whereas gastrointestinal symptoms were prominent in 85% of patients. Vaping -9-tetrahydrocannabinol was reported in 92% of patients, and vaping nicotine was reported in 62% of patients. All had bilateral ground-glass opacities on the chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Treatment with glucocorticoids led to clinical improvement in 11 of 12 patients. Treatment with glucocorticoids led to improvement in both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (P < .05). Four patients required home oxygen on the basis of 6-minute walk test results.CONCLUSIONS:
Diagnosis of EVALI should be suspected on the basis of vaping history and clinical presentation. Glucocorticoid treatment led to an improvement in symptoms and lung function. The 6-minute walk test may help determine oxygen needs at discharge.
As rates of neonatal opioid withdrawal are increasing, the need for research to evaluate new treatments is growing. Large heterogeneity exists in health outcomes reported in current literature. Our objective is to develop an evidence-informed and consensus-based core outcome set in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS-COS) for use in studies and clinical practice.METHODS:
An international multidisciplinary steering committee was established. A systematic review and a 3-round Delphi was performed with open-ended and score-based assessments of the importance of each outcome to inform clinical management of neonatal opioid withdrawal. Interviews were conducted with parents and/or caregivers on outcome importance. Finally, a consensus meeting with diverse stakeholders was held to review all data from all sources and establish a core set of outcomes with definitions.RESULTS:
The NOWS-COS was informed by 47 published studies, 41 Delphi participants, and 6 parent interviews. There were 63 outcomes evaluated. Final core outcomes include (1) pharmacologic treatment, (2) total dose of opioid treatment, (3) duration of treatment, (4) adjuvant therapy, (5) feeding difficulties, (6) consolability, (7) time to adequate symptom control, (8) parent-infant bonding, (9) duration of time the neonate spent in the hospital, (10) breastfeeding, (11) weight gain at hospital discharge, (12) readmission to hospital for withdrawal, and (13) neurodevelopment.CONCLUSIONS:
We developed an evidence-informed and consensus-based core outcome set. Implementation of this core outcome set will reduce heterogeneity between studies and facilitate evidence-based decision-making. Future research will disseminate all the findings and pilot test the validity of the NOWS-COS in additional countries and populations to increase generalizability and impact.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection and is associated with sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delays, and visual impairment. The clinical presentation of cCMV is variable, and the majority (80%–90%) of newborns will never manifest any clinical symptoms. Given the clinical heterogeneity of cCMV infection, it is challenging to identify which newborns may benefit from testing. Recently, certain states have implemented a targeted screening program in which newborns who fail the newborn hearing screen are tested for cCMV. Clinicians and legislative bodies have been propelled into debates about the ethical and moral permissibility of a targeted cCMV screening approach. Those who oppose this screening approach describe undue burden on patients, families, and the health care system because the majority of newborns who fail the newborn hearing screen and have cCMV will not go on to have any sequelae related to cCMV, including hearing loss. However, those who support this screening approach cite the importance of early detection and ongoing surveillance for hearing loss and developmental delays in this high-risk group of newborns. This debate will be considered by experts in the field.
A large portion of residency education occurs in inpatient teaching services without widely accepted consensus regarding the essential components that constitute a teaching service. We sought to generate consensus around this topic, with the goal of developing criteria programs that can be used when creating, redesigning, or evaluating teaching services.METHODS:
A list of potential components of teaching services was developed from a literature search, interviews, and focus groups. Eighteen pediatric medical education experts participated in a modified Delphi method, responding to a series of surveys rating the importance of the proposed components. Each iterative survey was amended on the basis of the results of the previous survey. A final survey evaluating the (1) effort and (2) impact of implementing components that had reached consensus as recommended was distributed.RESULTS:
Each survey had 100% panelist response. Five survey rounds were conducted. Fourteen attending physician characteristics and 7 system characteristics reached consensus as essential components of a teaching service. An additional 25 items reached consensus as recommended. When evaluating the effort and impact of these items, the implementation of attending characteristics was perceived as requiring less effort than system characteristics but as having similar impact.CONCLUSIONS:
Consensus on the essential and recommended components of a resident teaching service was achieved by using the modified Delphi method. Although the items that reached consensus as essential are similar to those proposed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, those that reached consensus as recommended are less commonly discussed and should be strongly considered by institutions.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified pathogen that mainly spreads by droplets. Most published studies have been focused on adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data concerning pediatric patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to determine epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19.METHODS:
We reviewed and analyzed data on pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, including basic information, epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiologic findings, treatment, outcome, and follow-up results.RESULTS:
A total of 74 pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. Of the 68 case patients whose epidemiological data were complete, 65 (65 of 68; 95.59%) were household contacts of adults. Cough (32.43%) and fever (27.03%) were the predominant symptoms of 44 (59.46%) symptomatic patients at onset of the illness. Abnormalities in leukocyte count were found in 23 (31.08%) children, and 10 (13.51%) children presented with abnormal lymphocyte count. Of the 34 (45.95%) patients who had nucleic acid testing results for common respiratory pathogens, 19 (51.35%) showed coinfection with other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. Ten (13.51%) children had real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for fecal specimens, and 8 of them showed prolonged existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.CONCLUSIONS:
Pediatric patients with COVID-19 presented with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and radiologic characteristics from adult patients. Nearly one-half of the infected children had coinfection with other common respiratory pathogens. It is not uncommon for pediatric patients to have prolonged fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA during the convalescent phase.
We describe 3 febrile infants <2 months of age admitted to a large tertiary care children’s hospital in New York and subsequently found to be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. All 3 patients presented with fever, feeding difficulty, lymphopenia, and thrombocytosis on laboratory evaluation. Two of the 3 patients were found to have neutropenia, and 2 had known exposures to sick contacts. In this case series, we describe 3 of the youngest patients to be reported with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the United States.
We describe a case of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, in an infant diagnosed 3 days after birth, and manifesting with silent hypoxemia, requiring respiratory support.
Pediatric Palliative Care in a Pandemic: Role Obligations, Moral Distress, and the Care You Can Give
Many ethical issues arise concerning the care of critically ill and dying patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this issue’s Ethics Rounds, we present 2 cases that highlight 2 different sorts of ethical issues. One is focused on the decisions that have to be made when the surge of patients with respiratory failure overwhelm ICUs. The other is focused on the psychological issues that arise for parents who are caring for a dying child when infection-control policies limit the number of visitors. Both of these situations raise challenges for caregivers who are trying to be honest, to deal with their own moral distress, and to provide compassionate palliative care.