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In most recent studies, authors combine all cases of sudden infant death syndrome, other deaths from ill-defined or unknown causes, and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed as a single population to analyze sudden unexpected infant death (SUID). Our aim with this study is to determine if there are statistically different subcategories of SUID that are based on the age of death of an infant.METHODS:
In this retrospective, cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set (2003–2013: 41 125 233 births and 37 624 SUIDs). Logistic regression models were developed to identify subpopulations of SUID cases by age of death, and we subsequently analyzed the effects of a set of covariates on each group.RESULTS:
Two groups were identified: sudden unexpected early neonatal deaths (SUENDs; days 0–6) and postperinatal SUIDs (days 7–364). These groups significantly differed in the distributions of assigned International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision code, live birth order, marital status, age of mother, birth weight, and gestational length compared to postperinatal SUIDs (days 7–364). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was not a significant risk factor for deaths that occurred in the first 48 hours.CONCLUSIONS:
SUEND should be considered as a discrete entity from postperinatal SUID in future studies. These data could help improve the epidemiological understanding of SUEND and SUID and provide clues to a mechanistic understanding underlying the causes of death.
Interest and participation in global health (GH) experiences have increased over the past 30 years in both medical schools and residencies, but little is known at the level of practicing pediatricians.METHODS:
Data were compared from the American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Surveys conducted in 1989 and 2017. The surveys had a response rate of 70.8% in 1989 and 46.7% in 2017. There were 638 and 668 postresidency pediatricians in the 1989 and 2017 surveys, respectively. Descriptive analyses were performed to look at changes in experience and interest in GH. A multivariable logistic regression was conducted specifically looking at characteristics associated with interest in participating in GH experiences in the next 3 years.RESULTS:
Pediatrician participation in GH experiences increased from 2.2% in 1989 to 5.1% in 2017, with statistically significant increases in pediatricians ≥50 years of age. Interest in participating in future GH experiences increased from 25.2% in 1989 to 31.7% in 2017, with a particular preference for short-term clinical opportunities. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the year 2017 was associated with an increased interest in future GH experience, especially in medical school, hospital or clinic practice settings, as well as among subspecialists.CONCLUSIONS:
Over the past 28 years, practicing pediatricians have increased their involvement in GH, and they are more interested in future GH experiences. The focus is on short-term opportunities. Our study reveals that practicing pediatricians mirror medical trainees in their growing interest and participation in GH.
The belief that late-preterm infants have similar cardiorespiratory maturity to term infants has led many institutions to limit car seat tolerance screens (CSTSs) to those born early preterm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of CSTS failure, focusing on late-preterm infants.METHODS:
We performed a retrospective review of late-preterm infants born from 2013 to 2017 to identify the incidence and predictors of CSTS failure, focusing on location of admission. We performed multivariable linear regression to assess the effect of CSTS results on length of stay (LOS).RESULTS:
We identified 918 subjects who underwent CSTSs, of whom 4.6% failed. Those infants who were admitted to both the NICU and nursery before discharge had the highest failure rate (8.5%). Of those who failed, 24% failed ≥2 CSTSs. Of these, 20% (all from the nursery) were found to have obstructive apnea and desaturations, and a total of 40% required supplemental oxygen for safe discharge from the hospital. Although crude LOS was longer for those who failed an initial CSTS, when accounting for location of admission, level of prematurity, and respiratory support requirements, the CSTS result was not a significant predictor of longer LOS.CONCLUSIONS:
A concerning number of late-preterm infants demonstrated unstable respiratory status when placed in their car seat. Those who failed repeat CSTSs frequently had underlying respiratory morbidities that required escalation of care. Although further study is warranted, LOS was not associated with CSTS results but rather with the cardiorespiratory immaturity noted or discovered by performing a CSTS.
Infants with congenital heart disease remain vulnerable to potentially preventable pathogens. Although immunization can significantly reduce this risk, it is unknown how immunization status can be affected by cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective was to evaluate the effect of CPB on infant vaccination status after cardiac surgery.METHODS:
We conducted a prospective observational study of patients between 2 and 14 months of age who had received at least their first round of infant vaccinations and who required cardiac surgery with CPB. Antibody titers were measured before CPB and again the following morning. Demographic and surgical variables were assessed via regression methods for their effects on the change in titers.RESULTS:
Among the 98 patients followed, there was no demonstrated difference between the pre- and postoperative values in regard to diphtheria, tetanus, polio 1, polio 3, or Haemophilus influenzae titers. Bordetella (1.03 vs 0.84, P < .001), and hepatitis B (log 2.10 vs 1.89, P = .001) titers did reduce after CPB but did not fall below the immunized threshold. Changes in antibody titers were not associated with time between immunization and surgery, age or weight at surgery, blood products administered, number of previous doses, time on CPB, or heterotaxy diagnosis for most of the vaccines.CONCLUSIONS:
Infant vaccine antibody titers were minimally affected by CPB and not associated with any easily modifiable surgical variables. Although antibody titers are only 1 marker of immunity, deviation from the recommended vaccination schedule may be unnecessary for children requiring congenital heart surgery.
Most pediatric clinicians aspire to promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, hoping to bestow a long and healthy life. Yet, some infants, children, and adolescents confront life-threatening illnesses and life-shortening conditions. Over the past 70 years, the clinician’s response to the suffering of these children has evolved from veritable neglect to the development of pediatric palliative care as a subspecialty devoted to their care. In this article, we review the history of how clinicians have understood and responded to the suffering of children with serious illnesses, highlighting how an initially narrow focus on anxiety eventually transformed into a holistic, multidimensional awareness of suffering. Through this transition, and influenced by the adult hospice movement, pediatric palliative care emerged as a new discipline. Becoming a discipline, however, has not been a panacea. We conclude by highlighting challenges remaining for the next generation of pediatric palliative care professionals to address.
Surveillance data on high school adolescent sexual activity, including teenaged pregnancy rates and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), require pediatricians and other youth providers to be competent and confident in addressing sexual and reproductive health care needs in adolescent and/or young adult populations. The American Academy of Pediatrics has published guidelines, recommendations, clinical reports, and resources on the promotion of healthy sexual development in clinical settings, encouraging sexual health assessments that are inclusive of HIV and STI testing as an integral component of comprehensive health visits. The need for a more determined effort to address sexual health as it relates to HIV specifically is evidenced by a decrease in the number of in-school youth reporting ever being tested, 15- to 24-year-olds representing 21% of new infections, and estimates that >40% of youth with HIV are undiagnosed. Ending the HIV epidemic requires adherence to published HIV testing recommendations, sexual health assessments, screening for STIs, and appropriate primary and secondary prevention education. Preexposure prophylaxis, an efficacious biomedical prevention intervention for reducing HIV acquisition, was approved in July 2012 and in May 2018 was authorized for use in minors. This state-of-the-art review article provides background information on preexposure prophylaxis, current guidelines and recommendations for use, and strategies to introduce and implement this valuable HIV prevention method in clinical practice with adolescents and young adults.
Se acercan las fechas navideñas y con ellas mucho tiempo libre que pasar en familia. La Asociación Española de Pediatría (AEP) quiere poner este año el foco en los adolescentes recordando a los padres que “ellos son el mejor ejemplo para sus hijos, tanto en lo que dicen como en lo que hacen”.
Calcupedev: la calculadora web hecha para clínicos, se presenta en el número de este mes de Evidencias en Pediatría
Gracias a esta herramienta, se pueden calcular fácilmente y de forma intuitiva parámetros epidemiológicos de interés a la hora de desarrollar estudios clínicos, como el NNT, la fracción atribuible de deidasd se impacto, etc., quedando directamente establecida como la calculadora web de referencia para los clínicos que se dediquen en algún grado a la...
José Ignacio Arana Amurrio
Pediatras en el exilio americano por la guerra civil española.
Pedro Gorrotaxategi Gorrotxategi, Miguel Zafra Anta
«Todo para el niño y todo por el niño» Prof. Juan Bosch Marín (1902-1995)
Juan José Fernández Teijeiro
Algunos pediatras españoles depurados durante el primer franquismo
José Manuel Fernández Menéndez,
Óscar Girón Vallejo
Las nuevas publicaciones pediátricas de los años 40
Miguel Zafra Anta,
Víctor M. García Nieto
En la literatura médica es frecuente observar que los resultados de las investigaciones no se ofrecen de manera satisfactoria para los clínicos y se echa de menos las medidas de asociación o de impacto para poder valorar con rigor metodológico y poder aplicar los resultados a la práctica clínica habitual. Calcupedev1, es una herramienta para cálculo epidemiológico elaborada por el comité Pediatría Basada en la Evidencia que intenta suplir esta carencia en los resultados. Esta herramienta nace para asesorar a todos los clínicos y personal perteneciente al campo de la salud en su toma de decisiones en su práctica habitual.
1. Ortega Páez E, Ochoa Sangrador C, Molina Arias M. Calcupedev. Herramienta epidemiológica para clínicos. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:53.